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2013 - SSSA Annual Meeting Words: 351 words || 
1. Campbell, Olakemi. "Private Security in Civil Conflict: Implications on Conflict Success, Duration, and Post-Conflict Reconstruction." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SSSA Annual Meeting, New Orleans Marriott, New Orleans, Louisiana, Mar 27, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-06-26 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Current studies of civil wars tend to focus on two types of protagonists—rebel groups and the state. However, civil wars can produce “third actors” that operate alongside the regular security forces of the state against rebel groups. These “paramilitaries,” “civil militias,” and “civil defense forces” often have a profound impact on civil war dynamics, including levels and patterns of violence against civilians, and processes of war duration and termination. This project will examine the impact of third party actors on the dynamics of civil conflict including patterns of violence against civilians, and processes of war duration and termination. Specifically, I look at the duration, success, and death tolls of civil conflicts with and without the use of private military companies.
This paramilitary option has ultimately changed the dynamics of civil conflict. Private military companies (PSC) have exposed an additional dimension to the administration of security. PSC’s offer a solution to the institution-building difficulties that many transitional States face; as a result, they inadvertently enhance the permissive conditions for civil wars. The introduction of the third party actors—private military companies—has serious implications on legitimacy of political purpose which adds a challenge to the duration and post-conflict stability; undermines accountability which fosters repressive behavior; and invites sympathy both domestically and internationally. Ultimately, I argue that absent a political purpose and the present of economic enticements, private military companies have an incentive to extend the duration of conflict. Consequently, tempers are enraged for a longer period of time thus encouraging more domestic opposition and creating heightened post-conflict challenges.
In this paper I plan to examine civil conflicts from 1980 to 2010. Using data collected from The International Institute of Strategic Studies, published in The Military Balance, which contains international comparisons of defense expenditure and military manpower (including the number of paramilitary personnel) for 170 countries and the Correlates of War Intra-state war datasets, I will test the duration and success of civil conflict for those conflicts that used private security companies against those that conflicts that do not include private military companies.

2012 - 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 735 words || 
2. Naseem, Muhammad. "Education, peace, and development: Conflict-sensitive indicators for the educational sector in conflict and post-conflict" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Apr 22, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-06-26 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objective
This paper seeks to explore the role of peace education in the worldwide education revolution. The main objective of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding the complex relationship between education, conflict and development. Specifically, the paper seeks to identify and examine conflict sensitive indicators for the educational sector in conflict and post-conflict environments with a view to identify positive (developmental) and negative (conflict exacerbating) potential of the educational programs in general and policy, curricular and textual discourses in particular.

Conceptual framework
The foundational thinking in development has always believed that education (in combination with other social, political and economic institutions) has the potential to prevent conflict, contain it once it happens, and to mitigate its effects after the cessation of violence. However, lately the relationship between education, development, social reconstruction and peace building has come under scholarly scrutiny especially in the context of greater international scrutiny on fragile states (Smith and Vaux, 2003; Davies, 2004; World Bank, 2005).

Scholarship in this respect makes a strong conceptual and empirical argument that education may not always be the proverbial panacea for socio-economic reconstruction, development and peace building. Educational systems and discourses can and do add to the conflict by reproducing many of the condition that are central to the conflict. These include reproduction of relations of power and dominance, distribution of resources; subject positioning, socio-political and economic inequalities, etc. Mechanisms through which such conditions are produced and/or reproduced can include: access to or denial of educational opportunities, inadequate educational opportunities, distorted curricula, discrimination on ethnic, racial, gender and/or religious grounds.

While much scholarly attention has focused on the politico-economic, policy and access to education issues in conflict and post-conflict societies recently scholars have started to factor education as a major factor in conflict and post-conflict situations. The hitherto under researched factor is now recognized as a potential catalyst to the conflict as well as a part of the solution.

Education alone does not start or end conflict. Nor it is by itself sufficient for reconstruction, reconciliation and development. It is, however, one of the most important factors in the wider conflict and development analyses. According to an influential World Bank study there are as many as twelve major conflict analysis tools that are currently available and in use by major institutions, researchers and governments. Most of these, however, do not include analysis of the role education plays or can play in contributing to conflict or mitigating its effects (World Bank, 2005).

Research Design
The main methodological approach of the study draws upon Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and critical ethnography. The study draws on Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse theory to identify: a) nodal points i.e. central notions (signs) around which the discourse in question organizes the meaning making exercise; b) moments (signs or notions for which meaning has already been fixed by the discourse) and elements (signs or notions for which no meaning has been fixed).
Data Sources
The primary data corpus comprises of texts that include: educational policy documents; curriculum documents; current textbooks for teaching language, social studies for classes 1-10; Islamiat, and science textbooks, textbooks from previous years, in-depth interviews with teachers, educational policy makers, politicians, textbook writers, curriculum experts of the respective ministries of education in Pakistan and Afghanistan.

The sources of the conflicts in Pakistan and Afghanistan are varied. Recently scholarly attention has focused on the role that education (in combination with economic, political, societal and geo-strategic factors) plays in exacerbating these conflicts. Preliminary findings show that changes brought to the educational system, policy, curricula and textbooks in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 1979-1988 have been one of the major sources of conflict in these countries.

Such policies brought about crucial changes in the public and informal educational sectors of the two countries that have been responsible for transformations that have gnawed at the fabric of the two societies and have resulted in tragic events abroad. The condoning of the mushrooming of madrassahs by the US resulted in the evolution of a class of militarized young men (and women) who are anti-western and anti-modernization and that do not question the way of the military.

Significance of the research lies in: a) identifying the mechanisms through which this exercise of meaning making takes place in the texts; b) focusing attention on how to counter and deconstruct texts and meaning making activities; c) producing a theoretical base from where a meaningful educational and curricular reform may be initiated and carried out.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 7373 words || 
3. Kim, Do Kyun. and Lee, Eun Hee. "A Communicative Analysis of South and North Korean Conflict: From Political Conflict to Communication Conflict" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-26 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: South and North Korea have been separated for more than fifty years, yet both countries still claim that they comprise one ethnic group. However, there are few explicit reasons that support why they should be considered as one ethnic group. Indeed, since two Koreas have different political and economic systems and there is no communication between each other, the ethnic group has become fractured. Language is particularly important in communication because it creates, maintains, and even disconnects most types of human relationships. From this perspective, it is doubtable that South and North Koreans would speak the same language after the fifty years of separation. What does this language difference mean in the relationship between the two Koreas? It means that the two Koreas are losing the final tie that connects the two groups of people. The two Koreas are now at the moment of becoming completely disconnected and becoming different ethnic groups. In confronting this situation, the communicative conflict resolutions can be the most effective way to reestablish a holistic relationship between the two Koreas. The communicative conflict resolution for the Korean conflict includes constructing more agendas to create more interpersonal and organizational interactions, exchanging popular culture by media, and integrating a common language policy. These communicative strategies of enhancing the relationship between the two Koreas focus more on the grassroots level of interactions, rather than the political and economic sectors.

2009 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 217 words || 
4. Townsen, Ashly. "Funding Conflict? An Examination of How Resource Prices Affect Conflict and Conflict Management" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel Intercontinental, New Orleans, LA, Jan 07, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-06-26 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The rise of a global economy has given new pathways to old problems. Since the end of the cold war, conflicts have gone in search of new ways to fund their violence. This article examines one manner in which both rebel groups and the governments seek to obtain funding. It suggests that price fluctuations in conflict funding resources directly correspond to conflict intensity and the success of conflict management. A theoretical framework for the disintegration of funds from the marketplace to the battlefield is conducted, and the causal linkage between increased funding and increased intensity is explained. A logical explanation of how price fluctuations affect the likelihood of a conflict management attempt becoming successful is created. The purposed relationships are, a rise in resource price from outside markets results in an increase of conflict intensity within the conflicts funded by the same resource; and a rise in resource price from outside markets should result a decrease in the probability of successful conflict management. A systematic examination is undertaken between price, intensity and conflict management. Market prices for several resources are obtained, intensity measures created, and conflict management success variables coded. Ordinary least squares regression and logit cross-sectional time series statistical analysis are performed to empirically test the proposed relationships.

2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Pages: 26 pages || Words: 8138 words || 
5. Chiba, Daina. "International Institutions and the Durations of International Conflict and Post-conflict Peace" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-26 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: How do international organizations (IOs) influence states' conflict behavior in the absence of centralized enforcement? This study develops and tests an argument about how IO membership affects the enforcement problems states face in the aftermath of militarized conflict. It maintains that joint membership in IOs that explicitly promote peaceful settlement of disputes improves enforcement conditions by increasing the costs of revising the agreed terms of a cease-fire. However, precisely because these IOs make a cease-fire more durable, they can also encourage the disputants to stick to tougher bargaining positions during conflict, causing a delay in a cease-fire. A survival analysis that recognizes the interdependence between the durations of conflict and subsequent peace provides substantial support for the argument.

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