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2019 - NAISA Words: 252 words || 
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1. Ugarte, Magdalena. "‘Not everything should be consulted:’ Settler Colonial Violence and the Implementation of the Duty to Consult in Chile" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NAISA, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand, Jun 26, 2019 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1487215_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper offers a critical re-reading of the implementation of the duty to consult with Indigenous peoples in Chile, placing the practice of consultation in light of the settler colonial (Wolfe, 2006) history of the country. Since Chile ratified the International Labour Organization’s Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention 169 in 2008, several developments have taken place. One of them concerns the state’s efforts to regulate consultation through the creation of two parallel consultation mechanisms – one for investment projects with environmental impacts and one for all other so-called general government measures. Adopting an institutional ethnographic approach (Smith, 2005), this analysis draws on extensive fieldwork research to show how the planning and negotiation of those regulations re-enacts historical trends in Indigenous policy, which have sought to forcefully assimilate, negate, and/or reduce the exercise of Indigenous rights. More than 40 in-depth interviews with state officials and Indigenous leaders who were involved in the process suggest that the contemporary practice of consultation further consolidates the state’s longstanding approach towards Indigenous peoples – what some scholars have termed ‘domination by imposition of Chilean law’ (Burgos et al., 2006). While there are numerous studies of Indigenous consultation in Chile, most of them adopt a legalistic approach that focuses on gaps in implementation or failure to meet international law standards (Ríos, 2011; Tomaselli, 2013; Sanhueza, 2013; Caniuqueo and Peralta, 2017). This paper adds to these debates by connecting consultation in the 21st century to historical practices that perpetuate the existence of colonial rationalities and sensitivities (Porter, 2010) today.

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Pages: 22 pages || Words: 5705 words || 
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2. Cain, Sean. "Campaign Consultants and Congressional Party Unity: Are Consultants Agents of Parties or Candidates?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 02, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p363033_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Are political consultants agents of legislative parties? The conditional party government hypothesis proposes that if the members of a legislative party become more homogenous and polarized from the opposition party, they will be more likely to select strong party leaders to pursue collective goals. In this case, which describes the current state of affairs in the U.S. House of Representatives, the leadership of the two parties have a strong incentive to sustain homogenous legislative caucuses. Campaign finance scholars point to the pressure on incumbents with surplus funds to transfer part of their warchests to party committees, as well as party spending in close House races, largely via independent expenditures (IE), as means to bolster legislative party ties. Another means of building party unity may be influence over the market for campaign services that political consultants provide, particularly as many consultants contract with parties for IE. Data from Campaigns & Elections magazine of which consultants worked for parties and/or House incumbents will be used to test if incumbents hiring party-contracted consultants enhance their party unity scores compared to incumbents who did not party-agent consultants.

2019 - American Sociological Association Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Reisman, Leah. "Consulting as Carework: Decision-Making and Legitimacy in Consulting to Nonprofits" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton New York Midtown & Sheraton New York Times Square Hotel, New York City, Aug 09, 2019 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1513210_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Scholars of occupations and professions have shown uniform credentialing systems and standardized bodies of abstract knowledge to be normative markers of established professions. By drawing on such objective sources of expertise, professionals are able to make and justify decisions, establish and maintain legitimacy, and defend themselves from competitors. However, many contemporary occupations lack such credentialing systems and bodies of objective knowledge. In such cases, how do practitioners convince themselves and others that their expertise is legitimate? This paper uses the case of consultants to nonprofits to explore how members of occupations make and justify decisions about clients and internal operations in fields that lack codified bodies of knowledge and uniform credentialing systems. Drawing on a Zelizerian relational work framework and building on recent work on the role of values in constructing occupational mandates, the paper finds that consultants to nonprofits use two strategies to make decisions and legitimate their expertise in the absence of uniform standards: the personalization of legitimacy and deferring to standards of the nearest institutional domain. Using these strategies, consultants redefine consulting as carework, shifting the institutional field to which they are oriented from management consulting to nonprofit organizations. Contributing to our understanding of the role of values in constructing occupational mandates, the case of consulting to nonprofits shows that values can be used by occupational groups not only to distinguish themselves from obvious peer occupations, but also to redefine the field in which the occupation should be considered.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 226 words || 
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4. Cain, Sean. "Political Consultants and U.S. House of Representatives Elections of 2002: Strategic Decision-making and the Timing of Campaign Expenditures for Consultant Services" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p82527_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Electronic filing with the
Federal Election Commission has rendered federal election campaign
funding and spending data more readily available than ever. This paper
makes use of FEC data from U.S. House of Representatives election
campaign expenditure records for the 2002 election cycle, spanning all
major party candidates during the twenty-four months of 2001 and 2002,
and it is particularly concerned with the timing and amount of fees
paid to political consulting firms for services such as polling,
advertising, direct mail, etc. The argument presented here has the
premise that political consultants, like candidates for elected office,
make strategic decisions about which races to enter and about when to
enter them. Consequently, the timing of entry or participation in House
campaigns by consultants should tend to reflect reliable
indicators—incumbency, candidate experience, district partisanship,
etc.—of a candidate’s prospects for success. However, the relative
competitiveness or safeness of a seat (as perceived by political
elites, such as journalists for Congressional Quarterly, which
periodically publishes “risk rankings” of seats) may evolve during the
course of the election cycle. Consultant decisions may also reflect
these dynamic considerations, and as election day nears, there should
be a concentration of campaign expenditures for consultant services in
the handful of assuredly competitive races. Using event count
methodology, this hypothesis will be evaluated along with the competing
hypothesis that reputation-building political consultants may preempt
changes in perceptions of a race’s competitive, in which case the
timing of some candidates’ spending on consultant fees may precede
prognosticators that their race is competitive.

2016 - AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto Words: 252 words || 
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5. Sadoway, David. "From the Civil Service to Profit-Driven Consulting Services: Intermediated Observations on the Rise of Consulting Urbanism in India" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1103475_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: During the past decade Indian governments have been enmeshed in an unprecedented focus on the urban — involving novel designs for city governance, planning and infrastructures. Illustrative of this transformation in imagination and praxis, have been massive centrally-government seeded policy and programming initiatives, such as the sprawling Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). This tripartite scheme involved funding and programming orchestrations amongst central, state and city level governments. Central to JNNURM have been the role of traditional civil service staffers and increasingly the services of private sector profit-driven consultants — what Ash Amin terms ‘business consultancy urbanism’ — the latter of which have interpenetrated all levels of government.
Though consultancies are not unusual in OECD city-regions — where ‘new public management’, ‘outsourcing’ and ‘entrepreneurial urbanism’ paralleled the hollowing-out of governmental and civil services — in India, by contrast, the growing importance of urban consultancies signals a new shift in the knowledge-power dynamics that shape governmentality. Our paper, drawing from original interviews undertaken with staffers of the Government of Indian’s premier national-level think-tank, the National Institute of Urban Affairs, seeks to map the meanings underpinning the new reliance upon urban consultants invoked in JNNURM. We explore this reliance from the highest levels of policy formulation in government, to design-build projects at Indian city street level. We seek to understand what this transformation represents for pro-poor and public participation advocates working as intermediaries inside the civil service. Understanding these dynamics, we suggest, has crucial implications for accountability, transparency and citizenship inside India’s cities

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