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2011 - International Communication Association Words: 154 words || 
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1. Massanari, Adrienne. "Contradictions Within Information Architecture and Interaction Design: How Systemic Contradictions Influence Local Practice" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p489670_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: This paper explores two emergent user-centered design fields (Norman, 1998), information architecture (IA) and interaction design (IXD), to understand the ways practitioners internalize and respond to contradictions within their work. Through analysis of interviews with designers and professional discourse written about these fields (white papers, texts, mailing lists, etc.), I identify a number of political and economic tensions that shape and impinge upon individual practice. These tensions reflect much larger contradictions within the IA/IXD communities of practice (Wenger, 1998) and their emergent nature. I draw on cultural-historical activity theory (Engeström, Miettinen, & Punamäki-Gitai, 1999; Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2006) to provide a lens through which we can understand how these contradictions manifest at both the local, organizational, and network level. I argue that while designers employ certain communication strategies to manage these tensions within their practice at local levels, larger systemic contradictions remain unresolved and challenge the nature of their work.

2007 - NCA 93rd Annual Convention Pages: 30 pages || Words: 6798 words || 
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2. Xie, Xiaoying., Jang, Ahnlee. and Cai, Deborah. "Are Asians Really Okay with Contradictions? Using Dissonance to Explain Cultural Differences in Responding to Contradictions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 93rd Annual Convention, TBA, Chicago, IL, Nov 15, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p195142_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines the underlying mechanism of the cultural difference in ways of responding to contradictory information. Participants were 161 undergraduate students from three cultures. Results showed that (1) Asians experienced more dissonance than Americans when encountering incongruent information; (2) greater dissonance led to less reliance on only one side of the information; (3) dissonance mediated the effect of culture on handling contradictions; and (4) cultures did not differ in the process of dissonance reduction.

2003 - American Sociological Association Words: 3 words || 
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3. Alexander, Jeffrey. "Possibilities of Justice: The Civil Sphere and Its Contradictions." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p108249_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: (to be uploaded)

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 6382 words || 
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4. Shulman, David. "Accounts as Social Loopholes: Condoning Contradictions between Culture and Conduct" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p110700_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Social scientists have developed an extensive literature on how people employ accounts (Scott and Lyman 1968) and aligning actions (Stokes and Hewitt 1976) in everyday life. In this paper, I suggest that there is more sociological potential in this emergent literature than has been fully realized yet. A predominant emphasis on studying accounts as a means of negotiating a person’s identity has come at the expense of examining accounts more as a collective activity of social groups and as a means of preserving the ability to engage repeatedly in untoward behaviors. I suggest a reorientation of this literature to better address these neglected aspects of accounts. Where the sociology of accounts presently examines an individual’s efforts to have their conduct appear more in line with social norms, I suggest that what is particularly powerful sociologically about accounts is not their individual-level usage but their general capacity to make group and individual contradictions between cultures and conduct viable behavioral options. Accounts do not reconcile these contradictions; they provide social loopholes that attempt to suspend normal rules of evaluative judgment. I suggest that accounts are especially important in how they can help reduce the strains on social order that otherwise result from rampant, unexplained contradictions between culture and conduct. I conclude by suggesting that a reorientation of accounts as “social loopholes” can more fully integrate these overlooked dimensions of accounts and produce a rewarding new set of research questions.

2004 - American Sociological Association Words: 285 words || 
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5. Carrigan, Jacqueline. "Consuming Capitalist Contradictions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-05-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p111111_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The current profit realization crisis has motivated public figures to implore us to consume. President Bush has cited consumption as a tool for fighting terrorism and as an excuse for massive tax cuts. Yet many of the major social problems we are facing today find their origin in our consumption patterns. This contradiction is reflected in much of our media, in which advertising and political/economic rhetoric push consumption as a panacea for both individual and social ills, while simultaneously demonizing those who engage in mass consumption. Obesity, public and consumer debt, and global warming are the result of these consumption patterns that are simultaneously encouraged and demonized. In line with the emphasis on neoclassical individualism that dominates capitalist ideology; many observers see these problems as the result of personal decision making or the lack of self-control. However, the drastic increases in the rates are leading some to search for the social causes of these conditions, although few of these critics are examining the structural influences. This research focuses on the issue of obesity as an example of capitalist contradiction. There is a schism in the popular consciousness about the obesity issue, which is striking when looking at media accounts of this emerging global problem. In particular, a recent lawsuit filed against fast food companies has reflected this complex and contested understanding of obesity as individual failure versus social problem, while the systemic causes are still being pushed aside. This study will analyze the news accounts of obesity in general, with a focus on the discussions of the fast food lawsuit, to profile these diverging views and reveal the emergence of a new social problem in the public consciousness.

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