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2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Words: 31 words || 
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1. Alvarez, R.. and Llewellyn, Morgan. "Transforming Individual Contributions: Resources to Campaign Contributions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2018-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p266416_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Hypothesizing candidates use charity networks to transmit information and contribution requests, results show individual contributions rise with charity activity, but political interest limits the use of non-political networks for political purposes.

2012 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 176 words || 
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2. Nugent, William. "Analyzing Special Interest Campaign Contributions: Patterns of Defense Campaign Contributions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 11, 2012 <Not Available>. 2018-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p544232_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Why do interest groups donate the way they do? Interest groups are selective in deciding to whom they donate money. While there is much research on the interaction between interest groups and members of congress there is still more to be said for why interest groups donate to the members of congress that they do. This paper provides an empirical analysis of campaign contributions compared to which members of congress can best help interest groups achieve their legislative goals. It is clear that interests group donate more campaign contributions to candidates that they believe will win an upcoming election. There also appears to be a clear positive correlation between being on committees essential to an interest’s industry and large campaign contributions. To that end it is clear that interest groups give money to congressional candidates based on two important factors. First, interest groups give campaign contributions to candidates that are most likely to win. Second, Interest groups are more likely to give more money to members of congress who sit on committees essential to their industry.

2008 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 17 pages || Words: 4841 words || 
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3. Berigan, Nick. and Markovsky, Barry. "Actual Contributions, Proportional Contributions and Equity in a Public Goods System" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Boston and the Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, Jul 31, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p240922_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In the justice literature, a state of equity exists when actors perceive that their outcomes are proportional to their inputs. However, this definition confounds whether actors derive equity from their own and others’ actual contribution, or from contributions relative to what people are capable of giving. In this planned study we describe both a pilot study and a laboratory experiment that establish public goods systems. In those systems, (1) initial endowments are distributed unequally, (2) members contribute unequally, and (3) either absolute contributions or contributions relative to endowments are made salient. Using a formal model for predicting injustice experience, we will test whether these types of contribution play a role in determining perceptions of fairness.

2015 - 4S Annual Meeting – Denver Words: 220 words || 
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4. Collins, Harry., Evans, Robert. and Weinel, Martin. "Contributing to the technical phase: How experts and non-experts contribute to technical decisions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting – Denver, Sheraton Downtown, Denver, CO, Nov 11, 2015 <Not Available>. 2018-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1035713_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In their 2002 paper ‘The Third Wave of Science Studies’, Collins and Evans make a distinction between the technical and political phases of technological decision-making in the public domain. Under this division, the technical phase is concerned with the production of reliable knowledge about the world, whilst the political phase is concerned with questions of preferences and priorities.

The key difference between the technical and political phase is the formative aspirations that characterise them: legitimate actions in the technical phase enact scientific values where as actions on the political phase typically enact democratic values. Defining the phases in terms of their value structures does not, however, determine what actors are able to take part. Thus, for example, whilst those with a relevant contributory expertise are clearly relevant for the technical phase, it is not the case that only contributory expertise – be they scientific or experience-based experts – are able to contribute to technical decisions.

In this paper we summarise some recent developments in the Third Wave approach and explicate the ways in which a range of different actors – both expert and non-expert – can contribute to technical decisions. The resulting analysis offers a more complete and nuanced account of the technical phase and its relationship with the more explicitly political aspects of technological decision-making.

To be presented by Robert Evans.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 8524 words || 
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5. Claggett, William. and Pollock III, Philip. "Recruiting More but Contributing Less: The Puzzle of Campaign Contributions in the Pre- and Post-Reform Eras" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2018-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p82624_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper attempts to resolve a puzzle: The stability or slight decline in the number of campaign contributors since the mid-1960s despite a large increase in one of the more potent causes of such behavior—being asked to make a contribution. We show that the stability in the number of contributors is not due to candidates, parties and elites increasingly targeting individuals who are intrinsically less likely to respond. The gap in the effectiveness of recruitment persists, even after we control for other factors that shape whether individuals make campaign contributions. The key to resolving the puzzle is a recognition that the technology that allowed elites to vastly increase the number of people they solicit for funds has moved monetary recruitment toward less personal and hence less effective means of seeking contributions—specifically, toward more mail and phone solicitations. What is still unexplained is the apparently greater effectiveness of in-person requests for campaign contributions 40 years ago than today. The decline in the effectiveness of in-person monetary recruitment may have more to do with larger changes in American society, such as the decline in social capital and trust.

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