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2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 54 pages || Words: 14724 words || 
1. Hong, Woo-Taek. "Emerging Cooperation Under Power Parity: Dyadic Cooperation from Theoretical Perspectives of War Theories" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The theoretical necessity for synthesis of war and cooperation in a single variable has been emphasized by several scholars. Regardless, cooperation and war is continually treated as separate subjects within the studies of international relations. This article fulfills this necessity by examining the effects of two structural constraints on the dyadic cooperation of states. The structural constraints - relative power distribution and preference similarity - are consistent with the analysis of war and peace in the theories of war.
I derived hypotheses by specifically identifying the implications of structural constraints based on the propositions of two competing theories of war, power transition theory and balance of power theory. For the development of the hypotheses, I also include the implication of opportunity of interaction.
The empirical results of multilevel model analysis suggest that the movement toward dyadic cooperation corresponds to the effect of relative power in the presence of opportunity of interaction. On the other hand, preference similarity has a governing effect on cooperative interactions in the absence of opportunity of interaction. Overall, the direction of movement is more or less consistent with the expectations from power transition theory.
These findings indicate that relative power influences cooperative interaction, while its influence has not been acknowledged in most cooperation analysis. In sum, this article attempts to extend the explanatory capability of war theory to cooperation. Although explanatory richness is traded off for theoretical consistency and parsimony, this article not only advance theoretical enrichment, but provides the evidence that the role of relative power should be incorporated in future cooperation studies.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 68 pages || Words: 16477 words || 
2. Lavallee, Tara. "To Cooperate or Not, That is the Question: Transnational Security And Defense Industrial Cooperation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: US-European strategic cooperation arrangements are not a new phenomenon. The United States defense industrial establishment has cooperated at the defense science, technology, program, and industrial levels with allies and friendly countries for the past four decades (Gaddis, 1982; Foerster and Wright; 1990; Melanson 1996). US and European governments, their defense establishments, and their defense companies have promoted cooperation throughout most of the Post World War II period. The cooperation of today, however, is not driven by the same strategic imperatives of the Cold War era. Systemic changes have allowed for greater flexibility for state and non-state actors to create transnational linkages. This study argues that coupled with systemic changes, the appearance of increasing transnational cooperation arrangements is due to the perception by government and industry decision-makers that ?globalization is perhaps one of the most important environmental changes and incentives to form alliances, joint ventures, and teams." This sstudy reveals that defense industrial establishment policy-makers perceive globalization as occurring and therefore are altering policy strategies in an effort to shape and/or engage globalization forces. One of the most striking features of contemporary forms of government-led as well as industry-led cooperation initiatives is the accelerating global character of weapons system development and production. Transnational security and defense industrial cooperation are happening on a grander and more sophisticated scale than previously witnessed. National defense industries are acquiring global identities, which function in global networks rather than nationally based hierarchies. Practices, such as joint ventures, subcontracting, licensing, and inter-firm agreements call into question the traditional notion of the defense industrial base as a national asset. In order to reveal the pitfalls, opportunities and underlying reasons for the rapid growth in post-Cold War industry and government-led cooperation initiatives, this study analyzes the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) project. As a government sponsored co-development program under the global projects authorization initiative, JSF constitutes the true leading edge and most complex form of cooperation undertaken by governments.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 41 pages || Words: 13445 words || 
3. Kaswan, Mark. "Cooperative Politics: Cooperatives as an Institutional Vehicle for Social Transformation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Cooperative Politics: Cooperatives as an Institutional Vehicle for Social Transformation

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether, and in what form, the cooperative movement has political salience as a vehicle for transformative social change. Currently, cooperatives, with some 750 million members in over 100 countries worldwide, comprise the largest and most extensive existing alternative to traditional capitalism. But while cooperative principles embody such central theoretical concerns as utility and democracy, cooperatives have received very little attention within the discipline, especially in the U.S. This paper is an attempt to begin to address that lack.

The central question of this paper is whether the theoretical basis for cooperatives is such that they may be considered a vehicle for fundamental social change. Indeed, from a theoretical perspective, the basic premises of cooperatives—common interest and common property—are attractive to ideological approaches that seek to extend democracy into economic and social realms, and that are opposed to the individualistic and inegalitarian tendencies of capitalism.

By definition, a cooperative is an organization that “has for its object the economic and social betterment of its members by means of an enterprise based on mutual aid . . . an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise.” Cooperatives in their modern form developed out of the cooperative socialist movement in Britain that was active in the first third of the 19th century. This paper focuses on the work of William Thompson, who has been recognized (by those who recognize him at all) as the principal theorist of cooperative socialism. Thompson was a friend and associate of Jeremy Bentham, and while Thompson asserts that utility—the greatest good for the greatest number—is the fundamental normative principle on which his work is based, the implications which he draws from it are fundamentally different from Bentham’s. Whereas Bentham assumes an opposition between security (as he refers to liberty) and equality, Thompson attempts to reconcile them. His conclusion—the “natural laws of distribution”—leads him to assert that the only rational economic system, that unites security and equality and that affords the distribution of wealth most in conformity with the principle of utility, is one that is based on mutual cooperation.

Besides examining the theory of cooperative socialism as articulated by Thompson, the paper seeks to make connections between Thompson’s theory and cooperatives today. While many aspects of the cooperative movement have assimilated themselves within capitalism, the fundamental principles to which all cooperatives must agree (in order to be members of the International Cooperative Alliance) retain at least the flavor of cooperative socialism, and therefore rest on a base that is antithetical to traditional capitalism. This paper seeks to identify an ideological approach to cooperatives that would allow us to politicize them in such a way that they may be engaged in a project of fundamental social change.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 7339 words || 
4. Bell, Sam. "The Role of Veto Players in International Cooperation: Can Institutions Constrain Cooperation?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 20, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The cooperation literature largely measures democratic institutions in terms of how democratic a state is, ignoring the micro-level differences between democratic institutional structures. Much of the cooperation literature suggests that generally democratic states can make credible commitments, making cooperation easier. This still leaves unanswered, how democracies with different institutional structures will behave in international cooperation. I argue that increases (decreases) in the number of institutional and partisan veto players in a democracy, will lead to decreases (increases) in the ability to cooperate. Democracies with large numbers of veto players will be uniformly constrained, while democracies with fewer veto players will have the opportunity to cooperate, in turn leading to greater variation in the outcomes for these states. I examine my theory on a sample of democratic states for the years 1948-1979, using a heteroscedastic regression model. I test my hypotheses on both security and economic issue areas. I find that states with greater institutional constraints or more veto players are more constrained to cooperate, and states with less veto players have greater variance in their cooperative behavior.

5. Singh, Nitya. "South-South Cooperation: Another Regional Cooperative Movement or a New Pathway for the Sustained Development of the Third World?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The growth of Asia as an economic powerhouse in the past three decades has resulted in a renewed interest in the patterns on economic growth in under-developed countries. The debate continues on whether such an economic growth is sustainable or not and whether it is possible to replicate the Asian model of development across the under-developed world. In this situation one model of development that is being debated a lot is South-South cooperation as a form of economic development. Thus, in this paper I attempt to answer the question of whether a south-south model of economic development actually exists or is it just another form of regional cooperative movement, albeit on a grand scale. In order to answer this question I first contrast the developmental literature with the dependency literature and evaluate how effectively they have explained the economic development in the third world. Post this I use neo-institutionalism as well as concepts of competitive advantage and national competitive development from the management literature to formulate my own model. I put forward my hypotheses that economic shocks result in institutional change within states. Such an institutional change results in a change in the strategic thrust of a state. This strategic thrust results in a national competitive development of a state. Thus, as a result of all these aspects south-south cooperation between under-developed state is the ideal manner in which such a competitive development can be bought about. I will use the case studies of India and Brazil to justify my hypothesis and check its validity. I observe that the South-South cooperation can be considered as a model of economic growth for states that wish to further enhance their markets and increase as well as sustain their economic growth rates. I finally conclude with policy recommendations on how this model can be used to ensure sustainable economic growth.

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