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2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 379 words || 
1. Healey, F.. "Costing Early Grade Reading Programs—An Examination of Costs, Cost Effectiveness, and Issues around Costing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, <Not Available>. 2020-02-27 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: With the education access progressing in the right direction in much of the developing world, the development community has turned an eye toward education quality. Because early grade reading (EGR) is a fundamental aspect of a high quality education, particular attention has focused on this subject. USAID, for example, has put forth the goal of “improved reading skills for 100 million children in primary grades by 2015.”

Given this goal, USAID has begun to develop evidence-based EGR programs in a number of countries. As more and more USAID missions ready themselves to launch their own EGR programs, and as others prepare themselves to take their evidence-based EGR programs to scale, the issues of cost and cost effectiveness become a matter of concern, particularly in the present political milieu of reduced USG spending. Of particular interest to USAID are a) the costs of developing and implementing an evidence-based EGR intervention, b) examining the cost-effectiveness of those interventions, and c) gaining some sense of what it might cost to take an evidence-based program to scale.

This study initially examines the costs of five EGR efforts—pilots that took place in Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, and Malawi. To facilitate the costing of these evidence-based EGR programs, seven phases of an EGR program were identified—EGRA development, implementation of EGRA to generate data needed to conduct a policy dialogue around the need for an EGR intervention, policy dialogue around the results, implementation of an EGRA to generate a baseline in some pilot region, development of an EGR, implementation of the EGR intervention, and implementation of an EGRA to generate an end-line—and four cost domains were discerned: technical labor, technical materials, technical other, and administration. The resulting costing matrix is used to cost all five programs. Given these costs and the particulars of each EGR program, an analysis of costs, unit costs, and scale-up costs across all five programs is presented.

The impact that these EGR programs had on the treatment students, compared to their respective control students, is also presented. Given these “effects,” the cost effectiveness of each program is then explored and discussed. The paper then offers some recommendations for how better to examine issues around cost, the cost of scaling up, and cost effectiveness.

2006 - Economics of Population Health: Inaugural Conference of the American Society of Health Economists Words: 244 words || 
2. Mansley, Edward. and Abbott, Thomas. "Estimating Drug Cost in Economic Evaluations: Price, Acquisition Cost, or Marginal Societal Cost?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Economics of Population Health: Inaugural Conference of the American Society of Health Economists, TBA, Madison, WI, USA, Jun 04, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-02-27 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: We consider the estimation of drug cost within economic evaluations of pharmaceuticals, and argue that estimates based on U.S. pricing data frequently overstate the true cost of the medicines, both to healthcare organizations and to society. We show how this overestimation can lead to biased results. To demonstrate why pricing data may overstate the true acquisition cost to organizations, we provide an overview of the purchasing process for U.S. hospitals and managed care organizations. We then consider evaluations done from a societal perspective and present two arguments for why both prices and organizational acquisition costs overstate the marginal cost of a medicine to society. For both perspectives, we provide guidance for developing more accurate cost estimates. Our central points are: (1) in cases where the perspective of the analysis is more narrow than that of society, analysts should use an estimate of drug cost that reflects, as closely as possible, the actual acquisition cost to the payer; and (2) when the analysis is done from the perspective of society, the drug cost estimate should not be based on price or acquisition cost, but instead, be based on the marginal societal cost of producing and distributing the drug. We conclude that investigators should be cautious when claiming the adoption of a societal perspective, and we call for discussion about the perspective that should be taken and cost estimates used when conducting evaluations related to the new Medicare drug benefit.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 278 words || 
3. Byrne, Erin. "Using Cost Data Constructively- How Systematic Cost Data Complements Cost Effectiveness Evaluations and Facilitates Rapid Learning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, <Not Available>. 2020-02-27 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: While it is not feasible to conduct a rigorous impact evaluation and cost effectiveness analysis for every project, cost efficiency (i.e. cost per output) estimates for education activities can be made universally available if they are generated systematically within the project cycle by implementing organizations. Thus, implementers have a unique role to play in providing meaningful insight by generating cost per output level data routinely. The International Rescue Committee has committed to report publicly on the cost per output or activity of every intervention we implement by 2020. However, there are significant challenges in producing comparable cost data—you need information from a wide variety of projects, which has been gathered and analyzed using a consistent methodology and meaningful metrics.

This presentation will highlight the approach the IRC has taken in gathering and analyzing cost data, the early lessons we have learned (for example, about modalities of teacher professional development), how insights have been applied in programming, and how we plan to integrate generation and use of such data into organizational processes. Rather than collecting and analyzing data by hand for each individual program, our Systematic Cost Analysis Tool (SCAN) simplifies the methodology and reduces the time it takes to generate cost figures, making real time information about cost per output available for all activities. This information is valuable for implementing organizations in designing new programs, budgeting for projects in new contexts, making course corrections, and considering costs at scale. As the IRC and other education providers generate and share such data systematically, a huge sample of context specific cost data points for the all types of education interventions can be used to inform decision making within the education sector.

2019 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 7679 words || 
4. Kunkel, Daniel. and Kleer, Nicola. "Cost-free at all Costs? – A Review of Drivers of Paying Intent and Willingness to Pay for Digital Journalism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Canada, Aug 07, 2019 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-27 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The advertising-based revenue model for journalism is severely challenged due to the effects of digitization. Providers of journalistic content have therefore put increasing emphasis on paid content strategies in recent years. This paper provides a literature review of factors that contribute to consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) and paying intent (PI) for digital journalistic content. We identify 18 variables that influence WTP and PI. Due to inconsistent measurements in the literature, however, the results remain ambiguous.

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