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2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 379 words || 
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1. Healey, F.. "Costing Early Grade Reading Programs—An Examination of Costs, Cost Effectiveness, and Issues around Costing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p708347_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: With the education access progressing in the right direction in much of the developing world, the development community has turned an eye toward education quality. Because early grade reading (EGR) is a fundamental aspect of a high quality education, particular attention has focused on this subject. USAID, for example, has put forth the goal of “improved reading skills for 100 million children in primary grades by 2015.”

Given this goal, USAID has begun to develop evidence-based EGR programs in a number of countries. As more and more USAID missions ready themselves to launch their own EGR programs, and as others prepare themselves to take their evidence-based EGR programs to scale, the issues of cost and cost effectiveness become a matter of concern, particularly in the present political milieu of reduced USG spending. Of particular interest to USAID are a) the costs of developing and implementing an evidence-based EGR intervention, b) examining the cost-effectiveness of those interventions, and c) gaining some sense of what it might cost to take an evidence-based program to scale.

This study initially examines the costs of five EGR efforts—pilots that took place in Egypt, Jordan, Kenya, Liberia, and Malawi. To facilitate the costing of these evidence-based EGR programs, seven phases of an EGR program were identified—EGRA development, implementation of EGRA to generate data needed to conduct a policy dialogue around the need for an EGR intervention, policy dialogue around the results, implementation of an EGRA to generate a baseline in some pilot region, development of an EGR, implementation of the EGR intervention, and implementation of an EGRA to generate an end-line—and four cost domains were discerned: technical labor, technical materials, technical other, and administration. The resulting costing matrix is used to cost all five programs. Given these costs and the particulars of each EGR program, an analysis of costs, unit costs, and scale-up costs across all five programs is presented.

The impact that these EGR programs had on the treatment students, compared to their respective control students, is also presented. Given these “effects,” the cost effectiveness of each program is then explored and discussed. The paper then offers some recommendations for how better to examine issues around cost, the cost of scaling up, and cost effectiveness.

2006 - Economics of Population Health: Inaugural Conference of the American Society of Health Economists Words: 244 words || 
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2. Mansley, Edward. and Abbott, Thomas. "Estimating Drug Cost in Economic Evaluations: Price, Acquisition Cost, or Marginal Societal Cost?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Economics of Population Health: Inaugural Conference of the American Society of Health Economists, TBA, Madison, WI, USA, Jun 04, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p91696_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: We consider the estimation of drug cost within economic evaluations of pharmaceuticals, and argue that estimates based on U.S. pricing data frequently overstate the true cost of the medicines, both to healthcare organizations and to society. We show how this overestimation can lead to biased results. To demonstrate why pricing data may overstate the true acquisition cost to organizations, we provide an overview of the purchasing process for U.S. hospitals and managed care organizations. We then consider evaluations done from a societal perspective and present two arguments for why both prices and organizational acquisition costs overstate the marginal cost of a medicine to society. For both perspectives, we provide guidance for developing more accurate cost estimates. Our central points are: (1) in cases where the perspective of the analysis is more narrow than that of society, analysts should use an estimate of drug cost that reflects, as closely as possible, the actual acquisition cost to the payer; and (2) when the analysis is done from the perspective of society, the drug cost estimate should not be based on price or acquisition cost, but instead, be based on the marginal societal cost of producing and distributing the drug. We conclude that investigators should be cautious when claiming the adoption of a societal perspective, and we call for discussion about the perspective that should be taken and cost estimates used when conducting evaluations related to the new Medicare drug benefit.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 278 words || 
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3. Byrne, Erin. "Using Cost Data Constructively- How Systematic Cost Data Complements Cost Effectiveness Evaluations and Facilitates Rapid Learning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1216254_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: While it is not feasible to conduct a rigorous impact evaluation and cost effectiveness analysis for every project, cost efficiency (i.e. cost per output) estimates for education activities can be made universally available if they are generated systematically within the project cycle by implementing organizations. Thus, implementers have a unique role to play in providing meaningful insight by generating cost per output level data routinely. The International Rescue Committee has committed to report publicly on the cost per output or activity of every intervention we implement by 2020. However, there are significant challenges in producing comparable cost data—you need information from a wide variety of projects, which has been gathered and analyzed using a consistent methodology and meaningful metrics.

This presentation will highlight the approach the IRC has taken in gathering and analyzing cost data, the early lessons we have learned (for example, about modalities of teacher professional development), how insights have been applied in programming, and how we plan to integrate generation and use of such data into organizational processes. Rather than collecting and analyzing data by hand for each individual program, our Systematic Cost Analysis Tool (SCAN) simplifies the methodology and reduces the time it takes to generate cost figures, making real time information about cost per output available for all activities. This information is valuable for implementing organizations in designing new programs, budgeting for projects in new contexts, making course corrections, and considering costs at scale. As the IRC and other education providers generate and share such data systematically, a huge sample of context specific cost data points for the all types of education interventions can be used to inform decision making within the education sector.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 741 words || 
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4. Roth, Wendy. "Cost Benefit and Cost Effectiveness Analysis in Assessing World Bank Education Proposals: a Complex Task Offering Diverse Value" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1205077_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: PURPOSE: The distribution of funding for public services, like education, in emerging nations represents a complex, multi-dimensional challenge due to high demand and limited capital, resources, and expertise – a challenge that impacts equality in education. As such, understanding approaches used to determine education funding allocations becomes imperative to supporting equality in education.
This paper addresses the research question of how, why, and under what circumstances were cost benefit analysis (CBA) and cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) used in assessing World Bank education Project Appraisal Documents (PADs) from 2010 to 2014.
Historically the field of education has leveraged CBA/CEA with much less frequency when compared to other public social services (Catterall, 1997; Levin, 2001; Ross, Barkaoui, & Scott, 2007; Tsang, 1997). The World Bank has extensive experience in CBA/CEA use in project assessments and supporting policies, and is considered a leader in economic analysis of education projects. So, the World Bank constituted a case where it is possible to identify significant findings and insights for using CBA/CEA in assessing education projects.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH METHOD: This research effort was viewed through an interpretive theoretical frame as the underlying purpose is descriptive and exploratory in nature (Butin, 2010). The theoretical use of CBA/CEA was defined as an ideal type, to explore and explain CBA/CEA use while taking into account the influence of organizational, personal, project, and worldwide dimensions. The analysis was rooted in the “logic of appropriateness theory” (March, 1994, p. 58) and views decisions and actions towards the use of CBA/CEA in the context of an institutional system.
This research effort consisted of two phases. Phase one involved quantitative analysis (descriptive statistics using Excel) of publicly available WB education PADs completed from 2010 to 2014 against five criteria: if CBA/CEA was used, the use of CBA/CEA in relation to time, geography, education scope, and funding amount/source. Trends were identified and consolidated to select a purposeful sample of six education PADs, across three nations, for further case study.
Phase two encompassed semi-structured interviews with targeted individuals involved in the six PAD case studies, across various World Bank roles. Twenty-three participants were interviewed from January to May 2015 (at WB Headquarters and via phone). Analysis of interview data was completed manually and using the tool nVivo, via both a deductive and inductive coding approach.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Phase one showed CBA use as cyclical in nature (from 2010 to 2014), with CBA becoming the norm by 2014. In contrast, CEA use was basically non-existent. CBA/CEA use was not strongly tied to any single geographic location, education sector, funding amount or source. However, a few interesting trends emerged – such as a higher use of CBA/CEA in vocational and tertiary education PADs.
Five major inter-related themes arose from phase two: CBA/CEA value was seen as diverse, the historical use of CBA constricted CBA’s current use, data, timeline and skill set challenged the CBA/CEA process, project context is imperative but perhaps not realistically achieved, education complexity is an important consideration, and a multi-disciplinary team structure helps when authoring a CBA/CEA.
Study data showed movement away from viewing CBA/CEA as a tool to justify a project through quantifiable analysis, towards viewing CBA/CEA as a means of facilitating richer client engagement and refining details in a structured, non-threatening way. Study data also showed over-employing CBA/CEA analysis rooted in one theoretical frame (specifically human capital theory) as a myopic approach that carries numerous challenges. Finally, when combining inter-related issues of data, timeline, and skill set, with a perceived increase in project complexity, the goal of rooting the analysis in project context is very challenging.
SCHOLARY SIGNIFICANCE: This study brings forward a real-life application of CBA/CEA value beyond choice, for education projects during their assessment stage. This particular contribution is important, as it brings to life the value that CBA/CEA can carry beyond quantifiable analysis – such as enhancing participation and empowerment of developing nations in support of education equality (via richer client engagement).
This study showed that while CBA/CEA is a tool historically rooted in positivist thinking and consequential action, tool use is embedded in interpretative thinking and appropriate action. This contribution emphasizes CBA/CEA use as requiring a degree of individual thought, judgement, and care from both positivistic and interpretive viewpoints.
This study also re-iterated the importance of CBA/CEA governance in an education setting. Guidelines are needed to define what a CBA/CEA means to an education project evaluation, when CBA/CEA is to be used, and governance surrounding context when completing economic analysis of an education project.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 4932 words || 
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5. Stoycheff, Elizabeth. and Nisbet, Erik. "Deceptive Audience Costs: Priming Costs and Hawkishness in the Russia-Crimea Conflict" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p984576_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many have argued that the 2014 Russia-Crimea conflict was inflamed by Russia’s hawkish media propaganda, such that it drove public opinion to support Crimea’s annexation, proving consequential for the state’s foreign policy. We draw on the audience costs literature and the democratic peace to contend that media coverage that highlights the diplomatic, military, and economic costs of conflict may be able to reduce hawkish attitudes among the public. Using a methodological experiment, we manipulated the order of question blocks in an original Russian survey, to examine the effects of cost and hawkish primes. We found that primes significantly influenced support for conflict, and this effect was moderated by hawkish chronic accessibility through heavy Russian media exposure. Theoretical and normative implications are discussed.

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