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2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 166 words || 
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1. Clark, Alyssa. and Davies, Andrew. "Access to Counsel: The Determination of Eligibility for Counsel in Upstate New York" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1148802_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: In Gideon v. Wainwright the Supreme Court said those ‘too poor to hire a lawyer’ must be provided with counsel. But how poor is too poor? In New York, determination of financial eligibility for assignment of counsel is the sole province of the more than two-thousand judges presiding in the state’s courts of original jurisdiction. Mostly non-lawyers working with little external support or training, these judges must grant or deny access to legal services deemed fundamental to any person facing deprivation of liberty. Qualitative data from our survey of over a thousand of these magistrates suggest that these ‘street level bureaucrats’ share a sense of the rules, responsibilities and resource constraints which shape their work, yet that they vary in their approaches to deciding how to assign counsel in ways that can have a profound impact on the legal services defendants receive. Policy implications are discussed in the context of recent initiatives in New York to expand early access to counsel.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Words: 105 words || 
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2. Kirkland, Kimberly. "The Moral Consciousness of Large Law Firm General Counsel and Ethics Counsel" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p303849_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines large law firm general counsel and ethics counsel's approaches to and assumptions and beliefs about ethics, morals and the phenomenon of ethical wrongdoing. Based on semi-structured interviews with large law firm general counsel and ethics counsel, this study attempts to describe the moral frame employed by the lawyers charged with the primary responsibility for ethics policy in their firms. The paper asks how this characteristic moral frame influences General Counsel and Ethics Counsels' approaches to their roles, including their decision-making, their interactions with the lawyers in their firms, and their understandings of the causes and potential for preventing ethical wrongdoing.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 200 words || 
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3. Cohen, Thomas. "Defense Counsel in Criminal Cases: A Profile of Defense Counsel’s Role in Felony Cases Processed in the Nation's 75 Most Populous Counties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p431511_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The role of defense counsel in criminal cases constitutes a topic of substantial importance for courthouse personnel, scholars, and policymakers. What types of defense counsel (e.g., public defenders, privately retained attorneys, and assigned counsel) represent defendants in criminal cases and how do these defense counsel types perform in terms of securing favorable outcomes for their clients? These and other issues are addressed in this summary of findings from a Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) report on defense counsel in state court criminal cases. Topics covered include the frequency in which public defenders, assigned counsel, and privately retained attorneys represent defendants charged with a felony offense in the nation’s 75 most populous counties and the relationship between various case characteristics and type of defense counsel representation. In addition, the relationship between defense counsel type and the adjudication and sentencing phases of criminal case processing are explored. This BJS report utilizes data from the State Court Processing Statistics (SCPS) project to examine these issues. SCPS is an ongoing data collection series sponsored by BJS that examines felony case processing in a sample of the nation’s 75 most populous counties. SCPS data covering the years 2004 and 2006 were used for this report.

2010 - The Law and Society Association Words: 241 words || 
Info
4. Cohen, Thomas. "Defense Counsel in Criminal Cases: A Profile of Defense Counsel’s Role in Felony Cases Processed in the Nation’s 75 Most Populous Counties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 27, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p406542_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The role of defense counsel in criminal cases constitutes a topic of substantial importance for court personnel, scholars, and policymakers. What types of defense counsel (e.g., public defenders, privately retained attorneys, and assigned counsel) represent defendants in criminal cases and how do these defense counsel types perform in terms of securing favorable outcomes for their clients? These and other issues are addressed in this summary of findings from a Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) report on defense counsel in state court criminal cases. Topics covered include the frequency in which public defenders, assigned counsel, and privately retained attorneys represent defendants charged with a felony offense; the relationship between offense severity and type of defense counsel representation; the role of defense counsel in the pretrial release decision; and trends in defense counsel representation from 1990 through 2006. In addition, the relationship between defense counsel type and the adjudication and sentencing phases of criminal case processing are explored. Of particular importance concerns whether defendants represented by privately retained or assigned counsel receive charge reductions, dismissals, or lower sentences at greater rates compared to defendants represented by public defenders. This BJS report utilizes data from the State Court Processing Statistics (SCPS) project to examine these issues. SCPS is an ongoing data collection series sponsored by BJS that examines felony case processing in a sample of the nation’s 75 most populous counties. SCPS data covering the years 2004 and 2006 were used for this report.

2005 - American Society of Criminology Pages: 211 pages || Words: 92554 words || 
Info
5. Jochnowitz, Leona. "Origins and Development of Right to Counsel, Including Effective Assistance of Counsel in Capital Cases" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Royal York, Toronto, Nov 15, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p24894_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper will provide a discussion of the history and scholarship concerning the right to counsel in criminal cases, with particular focus on the right to effective assistance of counsel in capital cases. The review covers the English judicial doctrine, the codification of the right in the early colonial charters and state constitutions, and the modern interpretation and application of the sixth amendment. It discusses the evolution of the right from consultation with private counsel to appointment of counsel for indigents. It addresses principles of federalism and state autonomy, covering landmark cases. The paper will address corollaries of the right to counsel in capital cases; counsel’s effective assistance, performance standards, appointment and compensation, and conflict of interest issues, which go to the heart of the fair administration of the death penalty. Good representation, performance standards and compensation may lead to fewer death sentences. Capital cases involve unique procedures, requiring specialized experience with juries in guilt and penalty phases. While the sixth amendment standards for effective assistance of counsel in criminal cases differ analytically from "death is different standard" applied in eighth amendment capital cases, recent cases show that the Court is sensitive to capital counsel’s special duties regarding mitigation evidence.

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