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2014 - ISTR 11th Annual Conference Words: 587 words || 
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1. Grizzle, Cleopatra. "Not everything that can be counted counts and not everything that counts can be counted" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISTR 11th Annual Conference, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany, Jul 22, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p698048_index.html>
Publication Type: Full Research Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The topic of performance measurement and accountability has been part of the vocabulary of public administrators in the United States for several decades, but rhetoric has outdistanced practice by far in the nonprofit sector. In recent years, amid a number of high profile scandals within the third sector, performance measurement has been widely advertised as the only way to ensure accountability within the nonprofit sector. Yet, many nonprofits focus only on financial measures such as donations, expenditures, and operating expense ratios instead of measuring how effectively and efficiently they meet the needs of their stakeholders (Kaplan, 2001). Further exacerbating the problem, previous attempts to create rating systems for nonprofit organizations have foundered on deep-seated suspicions about imposing standards in a field that prides itself on diversity and creativity (Christansen, 2003). “There's a kind of historical self-righteousness that sits in nonprofits, we're doing God's work or we're doing good work so help us” (Christansen, 2003).
Advocates of performance measurement argue that donors should seek information about the nonprofits they fund in much the same way they would before investing in the stock market. Against this backdrop, this study sets out to investigate whether donors are influenced by and support performance measurement in non-profit organizations. This study is comprised of a mixed methods approach that begins with a quantitative model determining the relevant factors involved in affecting donations to charitable nonprofit organizations and follows-up with a qualitative multi-case study. In the quantitative portion, we define our dependent variable as the natural logarithm of direct donations and utilize a fixed effects regression model to test our hypotheses. Drawing on the work of Trussel & Parsons, (2008) we argue that there are four conceptual factors that are related to donations; efficiency of the organization in allocating resources to its programs, the financial stability of the organization, the quantity of information available to donors, and the quality of the information available to donors. Data for this study is derived from the National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS) Business Master File including the complete population of organizations in all fifty states. The case studies will establish governance factors undetectable by quantitative analysis that will help determine which nonprofits are more likely to measure performance.
Performance measurement can be an effective tool for managers allowing them to identify areas of a program that need improvement; performance measurement can also assist donors in identifying effective organizations allowing them the opportunity to shift scarce resources from less successful organizations to more successful organizations. More importantly, performance measurement can help increase transparency and accountability within the entire nonprofit sector as a whole, which in turn can increase donor confidence and total donations to nonprofit organizations.
Within the current global economic climate, nonprofit organizations must consider strategies to withstand fiscal shock and weather adverse financial conditions. This paper contributes to several areas of nonprofit management research. First, it adds to the growing literature on accountability and performance measurement in nonprofits. Second, it offers tangible evidence of the governance decisions impacting social performance in nonprofit organizations.
References
Christansen, J. (2003). Exploring new ideas for making finances clearer and scandals rarer. New York Times, 17 November, 2003.
Kaplan, R. S. (2001). Strategic performance measurement and management in nonprofit organizations. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 11 (3): 353-370.
Trussel, J. M. & Parsons, L. M. (2008). Financial reporting factors affecting donations to charitable organizations. Advances in Accounting, 23: 263-285.

2013 - ARNOVA Annual Conference Words: 69 words || 
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2. Grizzle, Cleopatra. "Not Everything That Can Be Counted Counts, And Not Everything That Counts Can Be Counted" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA Annual Conference, Marriott Hartford Downtown, Hartford, CT, Nov 21, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p671523_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study sets out to investigate whether donors are influenced by and support performance measurement in non-profit organizations. This study is comprised of a mixed methods approach that begins with a quantitative model determining the relevant factors involved in affecting donations to charitable nonprofit organizations and follows-up with a qualitative multi-case study that aims to establish governance factors undetectable by quantitative analysis that help determine which nonprofits measure performance.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 685 words || 
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3. Dragon, Christina. "10. Healthy People 2020 Tracking LGBT Health: What Matters is Counted and What is Counted Matters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1009123_index.html>
Publication Type: Informal Discussion Roundtable
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The Healthy People (HP) initiative is a nationally representative, ten-year, data driven mechanism for tracking the health of the U.S. population across multiple domains and indicators. The Healthy People initiative also serves as a major public health platform that drives and responds to changes in policy as a reflection of changing social norms and current evidence-based practices. In its most recent iteration, Healthy People 2020 (HP2020), a new topic area was included to focus on the health and well-being of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Americans. However, despite the HP2020 topic area, there is still a deficit of sources that collect data which reflect sexual and gender minority populations. In 2011 the Institute of Medicine published a report that prioritized enhanced data collection and research to further illuminate LGBT health disparities. This discussion will focus on exploring the social paradigms that can be employed and/or shifted to support better data collection.

2016 - The Twelfth International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 150 words || 
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4. Davenport, Alex. "Counting to be Counted: Decision Spaces in United Nations Climate Negotiations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Twelfth International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 18, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1113628_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this piece I use my experience at COP 16 to examine the ways in which civil society is, or is not, granted legitimacy in the United Nations’ climate negotiations. To do this I briefly describe the COP process within a larger international context, before turning to COP 16 and Cancún specifically. I utilize an autoethnographic approach to provide insight into the ways that advocacy and decision making operates in the international arena. This approach is not only fitting for environmental communication, but is also important because it complicates the official history of the COP process, by bringing to light narratives that are actively suppressed and denied; preventing an easy deployment of power that can incapacitate change. By examining COP 16 I address the importance of empowerment, transparency, and dialogue — hopefully adding a productive nuance to the ways Senecah’s “Trinity of Voice” (access, standing, and influence) may be viewed.

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