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2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 44 pages || Words: 13080 words || 
1. Claessens, Stijn., Underhill, Geoffrey. and Zhang, Xiaoke. "Basle II Capital Requirements and Developing Countries: a Political Economy Perspective on the Costs for Poor Countries of Rich Country Policies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The 1990s financial crises have triggered changes to the international financial system, the so-called international financial architecture. While much affected, developing countries have had very little influence on the changes, which the formulation of the new Basle capital accord (Basle II, B-II) illustrates. We show that B-II has largely been formulated to advance the interests of powerful market players, at the expense of those of developing economies. For these countries, B-II can raise the costs of and reduce the access to external financing. Importantly, B-II can exacerbate fluctuations in the availability of external financing, an unfortunate outcome, given that developing countries already suffer from volatile capital flows.

2014 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 7249 words || 
2. Wu, Linwan. and JU, ILYOUNG. "The Cognitive and Affective Effects of Country-of-Origin: How Consumers Process Country-of-Assembly and Country-of-Design for High and Low Involvement Products" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Le Centre Sheraton, Montreal, Canada, Aug 06, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate how COA and COD information is processed by consumers for high and low involvement products. Results indicated that COA was more likely to be processed cognitively, while COD tended to be processed affectively. For high involvement products, the only presentation of COD with a positive image elicited the most favorable affective product evaluation. For low involvement products, no difference of cognitive product evaluation was detected.

2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Ingenhoff, Diana. and Richner, Dominique. "Analyzing the Polyphony of Voices: Value Drivers of the Country Image in Western European and BRICS Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, May 22, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: For public diplomacy, it is essential to thoroughly analyze the country images and develop coherent communication strategies to shape a positive country image abroad. Our study aims at analyzing the value-drivers of the different country image dimensions and investigating country groups with similar attitudes towards a country. In a representative survey study, we apply the recently validated 5-dimensional measurement scale of country images for the first time with PLS-SEM to eight countries. We conduct cluster analysis, resulting in a Western European cluster (Germany, Italy, France, Great Britain) and a BR(I)CS cluster (Brazil, Russia, China, South Africa). Based on news values theory and social psychological assumptions on stereotypes, we empirically tested and approved our hypothesis that in countries which are distant to the target country the cultural and natural country image dimension plays a vital role. Finally, we discuss potential benefits for public diplomacy when addressing country clusters with communication programs.

2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 704 words || 
4. Tahirsylaj, Armend., Fu, Tian. and Zhang, Liang. "Explaining Within-Country School Inequality across PISA 2009 Participating Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Mar 10, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: 1. Objectives or purposes of the paper
Numerous studies have used available international student assessment datasets to examine cross-national differences in student achievement by focusing on student performance test results (Hanushek & Woessmann, 2010; Lee & Barro, 2001; Woessmann, 2003; Woessmann & West, 2006; Woessmann, 2011). The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new measure for explaining within country school inequality using Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 data. The new measure is the intra-class correlation (ICC) which is the proportion of between-school variance in total variance of test scores in 65 respective countries that participated in PISA 2009. A higher value of ICC indicates that a large proportion of total variance can be explained by between-school differences; a lower value of ICC indicates that most of variance is due to differences among students within schools rather than differences between schools. Then, our objective is to put forth a model for identifying the key factors that contribute to this within-country school inequality, which in turn affects students’ performance in international assessments. Our main research questions are: 1. How to measure between-school inequality within a particular national system? and 2. What determines between-school inequality?

2. Main perspective or theoretical/conceptual framework utilized
School inequality is affected by an array of national, institutional, and student level factors. At the national level, more public resources (i.e., public investment in education) would help improve educational equality. At the school level, inequality can be related to the admission policy (e.g., tracking, ability grouping) and distribution of resources across schools. Finally, at the student level, family background (e.g., ses, educational resources) is a major factor that determines educational inequality. We include all these factors in our model.

3. Analytical methods, research design, or modes of inquiry
To address our research questions, we will employ a two-step analysis comprising of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and multiple linear regression analysis. In the first step, we compute the ICC for each PISA 2009 participating country as a proxy for the between-school inequality by applying an HLM null model, and in the second step, we identify determinants of that between-school inequality in multiple linear regression models, drawing variables from country level (per capita GDP, and percentage of expenditure in education) as well as from school level and student family background.

4. Data sources or evidence
We use data from PISA 2009 for our analysis. PISA is administered by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) every three years, starting from 2000. PISA tests student from OECD and non-OECD countries when they are 15 year old in the areas of math, science and reading literacy (OECD, 2012). PISA 2009 included 65 countries.

5. Results and/or conclusions
Our preliminary results show that ICC seems to be a reliable measure of educational inequality across schools. While previous studies indicated that international differences in resources in education did not matter for the student achievement, our results show that country-level investments in education contribute to reducing between-school inequality at country level. This finding might help national governments to increase investment in education to promote education equality across schools.

6. Significance of the study to the field of comparative or international education.
Our study is a significant step in introducing and establishing ICC as an important measure for within-country between-school inequality. It opens new opportunities for other researchers to examine within-country between-school differences from the ICC perspective. Furthermore, our study confirms significance of the use of national resources for promoting educational equality within nations, thus providing new scholarship to the field of comparative and international education, which so for did not recognize the impact of resources on international differences on student outcomes.

Hanushek, E. A., & Woessmann, L. (2010). The economics of international differences in educational achievement. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from
Lee, J. W., & Barro, R. J. (2001). Schooling quality in a cross–section of countries. Economica, 68(272), 465–488.
OECD (2012), PISA 2009 Technical Report, PISA, OECD Publishing.
Woessmann, L. (2003). Schooling resources, educational institutions and student performance: the international evidence. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 65(2), 117–170.
Woessmann, L., & West, M. (2006). Class-size effects in school systems around the world: Evidence from between-grade variation in TIMSS. European Economic Review, 50(3), 695–736.
Woessmann, L. (2011). Cross-country evidence on teacher performance pay. Economics of Education Review, 30(3), 404–418.

2012 - Northeastern Political Science Association Words: 138 words || 
5. Aksana, Yarashynskaya. "Economic development of post-communist countries: assessment of the agricultural reforms’ outcomes in selected CEE countries." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA, Nov 15, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-09-23 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Started at the early 1990s, the transformation process at Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) was aimed to launch the centrally-planned economies of these countries onto a path of the sustained and successful economic growth. But do the real outcomes of the transformation reforms could be considered as the success (or failiure) in terms of the reforms’ efficiency?

In this paper, the reforms’ outcomes in the selected CEE countries (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia) are analyzed whiting the framework of the two standard measures of the economic performance - agricultural production and productivity, which were chosen due to its dual (socialist “centrally-planned” and liberal “free-market”) relevance.

The results demonstrate the sub-regional difference in reforms’ outcomes and imply that these differences should mainly be attributed to the different initial conditions and chosen reform path approaches.

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