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2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Words: 346 words || 
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1. Spiesel, Christina. "Bystander Video in Two Courts: The Court of Law and the Court of Public Opinion" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1234924_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: This paper examines the interpretative mechanisms at play when dealing with bystander video in the court of law and the court of public opinion. In a legal context, bystander videos include cell phone videos made by people accidentally at the depicted scene, and those that are the outputs of mechanical devices like fixed surveillance cameras as well as footage from dashboard cameras, body cameras, and Tasers. When bystander video has legal relevance and enters legal proceedings, it can profoundly affect people’s lives both for individual outcomes and for our understanding of our social order. But just because bystander video can have big effects does not make its meaning any clearer. It must be interpreted even if it does not seem to show us much of the scene it depicts. It is this interpretive problem of bystander video evidence that concerns me. What does a video fragment actually depict? What do we need to know about the underlying technologies? What different stories might the video segment substantiate both inside and outside the courtroom? I explore these questions in two recent cases—that have not yet gone to trial—of police officers accused of lethal shooting of African American men, Laquan MacDonald in 2014 in Chicago, Illinois and Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge, Louisiana in 2016. Dashcam footage of the MacDonald shooting was only released after a Freedom of Information Act request followed by a suit by an independent journalist. Once released, it received broad coverage in mainstream media. The television reports differed in the way they structured the coverage, providing a variety of versions of the story. The death of Alton Sterling was recorded both by cell phone and by surveillance footage. The surveillance footage from the site was removed by the police; two cell phone versions—recorded and circulated by witnesses—were made public. When the cases of the accused officers go to trial, both the participants in the trials and the public at large will have to grapple with problems of video interpretation. In outlining these problems, this paper proposes ways to think critically about video evidence.

2005 - American Society of Criminology Words: 249 words || 
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2. Mennerich, Amy., Rempel, Michael., Kralstein, Dana. and Farole, Jr., Donald. "Court Restructuring: Two Scenarios - Criminal, Supreme, Family Court Merger and Integrated Domestic Violence Courts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Royal York, Toronto, <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p32005_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This presentation will report the potential time and cost efficiencies associated with a proposal to significantly restructure the trial courts of a state court system within the United States. The study focused on two restructuring scenarios. One scenario consists of the consolidation of Criminal Court, which handles misdemeanor cases, Supreme Court, which handles criminal felonies and civil cases, and Family Court. The other scenario consists of the implementation of Integrated Domestic Violence Courts which bring before one judge all the domestic violence-related cases of a family, including those involving criminal, civil orders of protection, custody, visitation, matrimonial, and other matters. Therefore, Integrated Domestic Violence Courts are conceived to bring substantive benefits in the handling of domestic violence cases. This study advances results found in past studies by conducting a unique cost-benefit projection of the Criminal, Supreme, and Family Courts restructuring by analyzing court observations, interviews, and case data in two jurisdictions. The analysis will provide impact projections on capacity and time utilization for the judicial system, attorneys, corrections, social service agencies, and litigants. This study also advances past results of Integrated Domestic Violence Court studies by analyzing case data to examine whether these courts lead to more efficient handling of cases involving the same parties, a reduction in appearances and trips to court, and a change in case outcome indicators, such as length of time in detention, sentencing options and consistency, and use of orders of protection. The study is currently in progress. Results are expected Spring 2005.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 222 words || 
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3. Curry, Todd., Romano, Michael. and Romero, Richie. "The Impact of Lower Court Opinions on Higher Court Decisions in State Courts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1050965_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Members of the Court in individual states are responsible for interpreting and deciding cases on matters of great diversity with regard to the law. Despite the wide variability of laws, judges, and methods of selection within the states, little systematic research has been done to investigate what factors contribute to judges’ decisions and the crafting of judicial opinions. Specifically, how influential are lower courts at persuading judges on state Supreme Courts to affirm their opinions on legal questions and adopt similar language as the lower court? Previous research on the federal judiciary has found that lower courts, specifically the Court of Appeals, can influence the outcome of Supreme Court decisions in certain ways. Following Corley, Collins and Calvin's (2011) examination of the United States Supreme Court, we examine whether their conclusions about lower court influence on Supreme Court decisions hold when variation in the methods of selection, court professionalism, judicial tenure, and other factors unique to state-level analyses, are introduced. In order to examine the effect of state-level factors on the level of co-opting of lower court language by a state’s Supreme Court, we sample ten states based on variations in their methods of selection and create a dataset sampling opinions from both the state Supreme Court and the state’s Court of Appeals from 2010 to 2013.

2005 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 9681 words || 
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4. Staats, Joseph. "Role Orientations of Judges in Latin America: A Pilot Project Survey of Judges in the Supreme Court of Justice, Court of Appeal, and Courts of First Instance in Uruguay" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Inter-Continental Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Jan 06, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p66861_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

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