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2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 196 words || 
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1. Armstrong, Todd. "Collective Efficacy and Crime: The Relationship between Collective Efficacy, Violent Crime, Property Crime, and Drug Crime in a Southwestern City" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p200316_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature assessing the relationship between community structural characteristics, community dynamics and crime by replicating and extending the work of Sampson et al. (1997). For this replication we use data incorporating census data, community survey data and police calls for service data. In the community survey used in this data collection, collective efficacy was measured with questions identical to those used in the PHDCN. With this measure, these data allow a replication and extension of the ecological model originally tested by Sampson et al. (1997). Replication of this work is critical in light of evidence demonstrating that the relationship between community dynamics and crime varies from community to community (Elliott et al. 1996). The data upon which the current work is based were drawn from Mesa Arizona a community with demographic characteristics clearly distinct from Chicago IL. Results based on these data will inform the generalizability of Sampson et al.’s (1997) results. In addition to replication, we also extend Sampson et al.’s ecological model by testing the relationship between community structural characteristics, collective efficacy and drug sales and use as well as property crime and violence.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 198 words || 
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2. Reynolds, Dylan. "Does Crime Cause Crime? How Ecological Labels Could Cause Outward Mobility and Increased Neighborhood Crime" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1277578_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research concerning neighborhoods and crime has tended to be cross-sectional while attempting to identify causes, rather than effects, of crime. Accordingly, the few theories attempting to explain how high crime rates persist in neighborhoods over generations often fail to consider the role of residents’ perceptions and fear of crime in their neighborhoods. By integrating literature concerning fear of crime, ecological labeling, and social control, this paper presents a mechanism through which crime could cause increased crime at the neighborhood level. Research concerning reactions to crime is often critiqued for inadequately conceptualizing fear of crime. In this paper, fear of crime is proposed to function as an ecological label, having self-fulfilling effects on a neighborhood’s crime rate. Both fear of crime and ecological labels are social constructions residents derive from the interpretation of social information, primarily through informal interactions with co-residents. When fear of crime reaches some unspecified threshold in a neighborhood, emigration could increase, causing weakened social control and an ensuing increase in crime. This paper begins by examining previous theories understanding crime as the cause of further crime in neighborhoods. Subsequently, the mechanism presented in this paper is explored in detail, drawing on extant theories and research.

2006 - American Society of Criminology (ASC) Pages: 1 pages || Words: 231 words || 
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3. Stone, Maryann., Beauregard, Eric., Proulx, Jean. and Michaud, Patrick. "Sexual Homicide of Children: Pre-Crime, Crime, and Post-Crime Factors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology (ASC), Los Angeles Convention Center, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 01, 2006 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p125509_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Abstract: Most of the research conducted on sexual homicide and sexual murderers have focused on those individuals who killed an adult woman. Because of the difficulties related to collecting information on these offenders, very few empirical studies have looked specifically at sexual homicide of children. Three studies comparing sexual murderers of children to other groups (nonhomicidal child molesters, nonoffenders, incest offenders) have been conducted (Firestone, Bradford, Greenberg, Larose, & Curry, 1998; Firestone, Bradford, Greenberg, & Larose, 1997; Firestone, Bradford, Greenberg, & Nunes, 2000). Although these studies found interesting differences between homicidal child molesters and the other groups on psychological variables (e.g., PCL-R, deviant arousal, paraphilias, personality disorders), no comparisons were made on factors related to the crime. Moreover, Firestone and colleagues (1998) reported that “there is a limited amount of psychological research available on men who commit sexual murders, and no distinction has been made between those who have victimized adults and those who victimized children” (p. 306). Therefore, in order to better understand specifically sexual murderers of children (N = 11), comparisons with a group of sexual murderers of adult women (N = 66) on pre-crime, crime, and post-crime factors, were performed using bivariate statistics. Although the two groups present much more similarities than differences as to their crime, some of the significant differences and implications of the results will be discussed.

2011 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 198 words || 
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4. Hignite, Lance., Berthelot, Emily. and Brown, Timothy. "Anti-Muslim Hate Crime: An Analysis of Uniform Crime Report Hate Crime Data Pre- and Post-9/11" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 15, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p523676_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Since 2001, there has been an upsurge in official statistics on religious-biased crimes against those that are perceived to be Muslim(s). An examination of 1996 to 2000 Uniform Crime Report statistics indicates that roughly two percent of religious-biased crimes reported to law enforcement involved Muslim victims. However, since 2001 that number has risen to an average of 12 percent of total religious biased-crimes, with the year 2001 constituting over 27 percent of these crimes. In this study, Uniform Crime Report Hate Crime Data and American Community Survey Data from 1999 to 2009 are used to investigate the causes of this dramatic increase in reported anti-Muslim hate crimes. The analysis specifically investigates temporal variation in indicators of religious-biased crimes reported to law enforcement involving Muslims or perceived Muslims before, during, and after September 11th, 2001. Variation across time suggests that these increases in anti-Muslim hate crime: (1) may be the result of the terrorist acts of September 11th, 2001, and subsequent continuing wars in the Middle East; (2) may be related to the heterogeneity of community religious views and practices; and (3) may be related to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics in communities where the victimization occurred.

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