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Showing 1 through 5 of 6,249 records.
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2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 196 words || 
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1. Armstrong, Todd. "Collective Efficacy and Crime: The Relationship between Collective Efficacy, Violent Crime, Property Crime, and Drug Crime in a Southwestern City" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p200316_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature assessing the relationship between community structural characteristics, community dynamics and crime by replicating and extending the work of Sampson et al. (1997). For this replication we use data incorporating census data, community survey data and police calls for service data. In the community survey used in this data collection, collective efficacy was measured with questions identical to those used in the PHDCN. With this measure, these data allow a replication and extension of the ecological model originally tested by Sampson et al. (1997). Replication of this work is critical in light of evidence demonstrating that the relationship between community dynamics and crime varies from community to community (Elliott et al. 1996). The data upon which the current work is based were drawn from Mesa Arizona a community with demographic characteristics clearly distinct from Chicago IL. Results based on these data will inform the generalizability of Sampson et al.’s (1997) results. In addition to replication, we also extend Sampson et al.’s ecological model by testing the relationship between community structural characteristics, collective efficacy and drug sales and use as well as property crime and violence.

2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 125 words || 
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2. Hopkins, Matt. "Crimes against Business in England and Wales: Some Reflections on the Extent of Crime and Organized Crime Recorded by the 2012 Commercial Victimization Survey" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p666434_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: The 2012 Commercial Victimization Survey (CVS) was only the third national survey of business premises to be completed in England and Wales to date. With a sample of over 4,000 businesses and a focus on four business sectors, the survey makes a significant contribution to understanding the extent of crimes against business. This paper reports on some of the principal findings of the CVS and assesses its contribution to knowledge about commercial victimization. In particular the paper considers some of the more novel aspects of the CVS- such as its attempt to measure the extent of organized crime against businesses. In conclusion, some reflections are made as to how the 2012 CVS might help shape the future research agenda in relation to crimes against business.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 187 words || 
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3. Hollis, Meghan. "Defining Crime: How Police Processing of Crime Influences Crime Outcomes Used in Research" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p577121_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The study of how crime is defined and socially produced (and reproduced) has important implications for organizational understandings. The social production of crime and crime statistics is a key element in how modern police departments (particularly democratic Anglo-American police departments) create meaning and develop and refine their mandate (see Manning, 2010). Although much of what police and police organizations deal with is not crime in reality, the calls and duties that are most valued are those where a crime may have occurred or an arrest might have been made. The irony is that the police mandate has shifted over the years to have a broader, more "social work" orientation in practice (e.g., Manning, 1997; 2010). The defining of these key events as well as the defining of non-crime events has important implications for the policing organization on many levels. This paper will examine the process through which key events are defined and related outcomes. The focus of this paper includes informal and formal organizational practices that influence the processing of calls and the outputs generated that are used in criminological research.

2011 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 199 words || 
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4. Wyckoff, Laura. "A Test of Opportunity Theory at the Micro-Place as an Explanation for Spatial Displacement of Crime and Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits from Place-Based Crime Reduction Interventions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p517183_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Prior research on spatial displacement of crime and diffusion of crime control benefits has focused on the presence of these parallel intervention effects to large geographic area, answering the question “Does crime just move around the corner?” The current study changes the geographic perspective in the exploration of the presence and understanding of intervention spatial effects, by focusing on the micro-place. Drawing from findings in place-based research that the proportion and level of crime varies across micro-places, the current research examines the proportion and variability of displacement and diffusion across micro-places nested within larger geographic areas and proximate to place-based interventions. Using the micro-place, a measure paralleling an offender’s awareness space of a place, this research examines how the opportunity constructs of a micro-place – levels and types of guardianship and targets - predict spatial displacement and diffusion and offender adaption due to nearby interventions. The study answers the questions: “To what extent do crimes or benefits move there?” and “What place based opportunities explain why crimes or benefits move there?” It is hoped the answers to these questions will provide guidance to better harness and control the spatial side effects of focused interventions.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 198 words || 
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5. Reynolds, Dylan. "Does Crime Cause Crime? How Ecological Labels Could Cause Outward Mobility and Increased Neighborhood Crime" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-06-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1277578_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research concerning neighborhoods and crime has tended to be cross-sectional while attempting to identify causes, rather than effects, of crime. Accordingly, the few theories attempting to explain how high crime rates persist in neighborhoods over generations often fail to consider the role of residents’ perceptions and fear of crime in their neighborhoods. By integrating literature concerning fear of crime, ecological labeling, and social control, this paper presents a mechanism through which crime could cause increased crime at the neighborhood level. Research concerning reactions to crime is often critiqued for inadequately conceptualizing fear of crime. In this paper, fear of crime is proposed to function as an ecological label, having self-fulfilling effects on a neighborhood’s crime rate. Both fear of crime and ecological labels are social constructions residents derive from the interpretation of social information, primarily through informal interactions with co-residents. When fear of crime reaches some unspecified threshold in a neighborhood, emigration could increase, causing weakened social control and an ensuing increase in crime. This paper begins by examining previous theories understanding crime as the cause of further crime in neighborhoods. Subsequently, the mechanism presented in this paper is explored in detail, drawing on extant theories and research.

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