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2010 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 8370 words || 
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1. Tay, Kester., Agatha, Rasiah Raslyn., O. Lwin, May. and Pang, Augustine. "Crisis Preparedness versus Paranoia: Testing the Crisis Message Processing Model on the Effects of Over Communication of Crisis Preparedness Messages by Governments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, The Denver Sheraton, Denver, CO, Aug 04, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p433933_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The literature has constantly emphasized consistent messaging and reinforcement of messages by organizations managing crisis. What remains unclear is the effects of over-emphasis and over-exposure of messages to the audience. The authors have developed a model called the Crisis Message Processing Model to understand how audience process crisis messages. This study, the first of a series of empirical tests, examines the interactions among message intensity, repetition and threat perceptions. Findings showed rigor of the model (75 words, as requested by PR division).

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 31 pages || Words: 7333 words || 
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2. An, Seon-Kyoung. and Cho, Seung. "How Does News Media Frame Organizational Crisis Response? Selective Bias of Crisis News Coverage in South Korea Political Crisis" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p259978_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore selective bias of news media toward organizational crisis responses in a political crisis. Based on the illegal fund raising crisis during the 16th presidential election in South Korea, the current study compared news coverage of one news media (a progressive predisposition) with news releases of two political parties (government party vs. opposition party) in terms of crisis response strategies by using Benoit’s image restoration theory. The findings showed that the opposition party’s crisis response covered by the news media were different from those of news releases provided by its own party. On the other hand, the government party’s crisis response covered by the news media accorded with its news releases. Thus, a political disposition of both two parties and the newspaper contributes to the selective news coverage on party’s crisis responses in a crisis, which is called “selective bias.”

2017 - 88th Annual SPSA Conference Words: 182 words || 
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3. Clary, Matthew., Clary, Virginia. and Owsiak, Andrew. "Causing a Crisis: Simulating Interstate Crisis Conditions as a Learning Exercise in Crisis Diplomacy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 88th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, Jan 11, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1203092_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Students often struggle to understand complex political processes – such as the challenges of multilateral bargaining, cooperating in anarchically (as opposed to hierarchically) ordered environments, and creating policy under conditions of threat, competition, and time pressure. In order to offer students greater insight into these processes, this article therefore presents a simulation that replicates crisis conditions. Unlike other similar exercises, our simulation asks students to bargain simultaneously both within their individual governments to create policy and across governments using Twitter as a means of diplomatic communication to manage the crisis. Furthermore, we use real-world, as opposed to fictitious, issues and actors, in our exercise, which imbibes it with a sense of urgency and veracity. Through such a simulation, instructors can therefore teach students in a wide variety of courses about complex political processes across the domestic-international politics divide. Indeed, students report through collected survey data that they directly experience and better understand the logic behind the concepts they read and hear about in our courses, giving us great confidence that the exercise reinforces the concepts, themes, and learning objectives of our courses.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Words: 206 words || 
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4. Krishnarajan, Suthan. "Crisis, What Crisis? Unpacking the Crisis-Democracy Relationship" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1247555_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: An extensive large-N literature has demonstrated that economic crises consistently and significantly increase the risk of democratic breakdown. However, small-N comparative studies scrutinizing specific crisis episodes find only weak and inconsistent crisis-effects. I argue that these disagreements stem from an inadequate measurement of economic crisis in the large-N literature. The standard annual growth rate in GDP/capita measurement approach utilized by all large-N studies suffers from several shortcomings that lead to misguided conclusions. These are 1) inadequate specification of duration and 2) depth of crisis, 3) sensitive coefficients, 4) confusing the stabilizing effects of positive growth with the destabilizing effects of crisis, and 5) no inclusion of financial crisis components. By building on the works of economists, I present a new measurement approach that distinguishes between sovereign debt slumps, inflation slumps, banking slumps, currency slumps, and pure real-economic slumps. From this vantage point the paper shows that the effect of economic crises on democratic breakdowns is highly conditional on the type of crisis: democracies are very resilient to inflation-, currency-, and banking-slumps, while being highly vulnerable to sovereign debt slumps. By providing empirical evidence of such conditional crisis-effects this paper provides a way to bridge the disagreements in the literature and offers avenues for further crisis research.

2009 - ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING Words: 260 words || 
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5. Neves, Leonardo. and Podcameni, Ana Paula. "A Tale of Two Crisis: Is the 2008 Financial Crisis Sole a Economic Crisis?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING, Pontifical Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro Campus (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Jul 22, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-12-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p381514_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The 2008 financial crises that started in US and rapidly spread around the world have caught our attention for many different reasons. Its proportion have made lots of people compare it to the 1929 great depression, even saying that this one might be worst, since it had strong impact in almost whole world.



The concern about its consequences and the development of policies aimed to deal with it has become the top priority of a large number of governments and even the US presidential elections.



The 2008 US elections was dominated by security issues such as the wars carried out by United States , but that panorama suddenly shifted with the crisis breakout. As the crisis worsen, the US and others administrations have quickly started to take some emergencial measures to tackle the financial crisis. The measures per se and the way that they were negotiated and adopted resemble to others crises in US history, security crises.



Following this path the present article aims to study the 2008 financial crisis as a security crisis. Laying a theorical starting point on the well discussed expansion of the concept of security, where each sector has its goals and dangers, we will set the ground for the second fase of the work. The second part of the research aims to develop a model that approximates the actions taken by the US administration to manage this present financial crisis with other actions directed to securities endeavors. Finally we will develop some considerations toward that comparison, expecting to help in drawing new perspectives of this phenomenon.

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