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2009 - MWERA Annual Meeting Pages: 8 pages || Words: 1680 words || 
1. Rugutt, John. and Chemosit, Caroline. "The Effect of Per Pupil Expenditure, Mathematics Curriculum and Years of Mathematics Curriculum on Mathematics Achievement in Students of Low Socioeconomic Status" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MWERA Annual Meeting, Sheraton Westport Chalet Hotel, St. Louis, MO, Oct 14, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study used standard multiple linear regression to investigate relationships between mathematics achievement, per pupil operating expenditure, mathematic curriculum and student’s social economic status with a sample of 118, 571 high school students in a Midwestern state. Regression results indicate that the overall model significantly predicts mathematics achievement, R2 =.401, R2adj = .401, F (4, 118566) = 19832.84, p<.000. This model accounts for 40.1% of variance in mathematics. The study concluded with a discussion of the importance of mathematics curriculum, per pupil expenditures, years of mathematics and the challenges institutions face in trying to improve students’ achievement irrespective of student’s socioeconomic status.

2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 290 words || 
2. Babaci-Wilhite, Zehlia. "Curriculum for strengthening both local identity and global competitiveness: A case study of curriculum reform in Zanzibar" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Apr 30, 2011 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Zanzibar and Tanzania, mainland (earlier Tanganyika), have since 1967 been part of a joint republic, the United Republic of Tanzania(URT). While the two entities have the same curricula, numbers of lessons in each subject in secondary school, the curricula in primary education are different. Until recently they have, however, been rather similar. In 2006, Zanzibar endorsed the new Educational policy, which was based on an evaluation of the Zanzibar Education Master Plan for the years 1996 to 2006. The reason for the change seems to be two fold to reinforce local Islam-based culture and, to facilitate global integration through increased use of English as well as to enhance quality education in secondary school to decrease dropouts and achieve gender parity in secondary schools.
In 2010, Zanzibar began implementation of a new Education and Training policy. This policy will change important aspects of curriculum in primary and secondary education, including a change in the language of instruction (LoI), Kiswahili shall continue as the LoI in primary schools except for mathematics and science subjects from standard five where English shall be used, English and Arabic will be taught from primary one as foreign languages, diverse sports and physical education facilities, Computer education, Science and technology.
This paper will critically analyze the new curriculum, how policy decisions were made, how policies are being implemented and their consequences for quality learning in primary schools. The work will be grounded in educational and pedagogical research, where the principle emphasis has been on the effects of the choice of language on cognitive and learning processes, the cultural identity, the politics of development, and the ways that local people and governments interpret and deal with the issues related to learning process within the curriculum development.

2012 - LRA 62nd Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 1830 words || 
3. Richey, Leila., Taboada Barber, Ana. and Ramirez, Erin. "Interacting with Curriculum: An Investigation of a Special Education Teacher’s Adaptations to an Innovative Middle School Social Studies Literacy Curriculum" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA 62nd Annual Conference, Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, CA, Nov 28, 2012 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2017 - Association of Teacher Educators Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
4. Davis, Edith. and Byrd, Marie. "Hilda Taba Spiral Curriculum: Micro-Spiral Curriculum for Minorities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Orlando Caribe Royale, Orlando, Florida, Feb 10, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Research Reports
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The science curricula in the nation’s middle schools have been considered one of the weaker links to the advancement of a scientifically literate society. Science education and scientific literacy are essential to the success of the nation. A scientifically literate nation can help assure a free and democratic society, an economically viable society, and a healthy society

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 822 words || 
5. Kurakbayev, Kairat. and Kambatyrova, Assel. "Travelling Concepts in Curriculum-Making: the Case of Primary Curriculum Renewal in Kazakhstan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objectives or purposes as related to comparative and international education, conference theme and/or SIG

In the context of globalization, Kazakhstan, a post-Soviet country in Central Asia, is taking great efforts to internationalize its national academic system. Having become a member of the Bologna Process (2010), the Ministry sets a national goal of integrating Kazakhstan’s education with the world’s educational space. Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools (NIS), a center of academic excellence established in 2009, operationalized by the special law ‘On the Status of Nazarbayev University, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools and Nazarbayev Fund’ (2011) serves as a key agency in studying and adapting educational innovations introduced to them by their internationally reputed partners that include Cambridge International Examinations, University of Pennsylvania, International Baccalaureate (Switzerland), Center for Education Measurement CITO (Netherlands) and many other globally recognized institutions. The NIS network – state funded and highly selective – comprises newly established, well-equipped schools staffed with highly qualified local and international teachers able to use English as a medium of instruction. In 2015, with the mission to translate locally adapted policies and practices to the mainstream secondary schools, the NIS network introduced a new primary curriculum based on the concepts of Western pedagogies such as 21st century skills, learner-centered approaches, critical-thinking teaching methodologies and elements of ‘spiral curriculum’ to the local community. 30 pilot mainstream schools have been selected in different regions of the country to pilot the new primary curriculum and translate the learnt best practice to the remaining schools in the given region. Taking the case of renewal of the discussed primary curriculum, this paper examines processes, practices and ways of making sense of international transfer of educational innovations from the center (the Ministry and the NIS Network) to the periphery – mainstream secondary schools based in urban and rural settings of the country.

Perspective(s) or theoretical framework

Since the study discusses three cascaded directions of translation of educational innovations – from the NIS to the 30 pilot mainstream schools, that, in their turn, should translate the adapted practice to the neighboring mainstream schools – the paper places a great emphasis on the local context rather than the global education policy. As Steiner-Khamsi points out, “emphasis on local policy context as the analytical unit for examining policy transfer places greater weight on the agency, process, impact, and timing, of policy borrowing” (2012: 5). We also resort to the concepts of translation and reception to analyze teachers’ perceptions of the internationally borrowed concepts in the case of the new curriculum.

Research methods or modes of inquiry (including data sources, evidence, objects and/or materials)

The paper is based on the mixed methods research design. For the qualitative part of the data, six pilot mainstream schools testing the new primary curriculum have been chosen as research sites. The data from the six pilot schools comprise interviews with mainstream schools’ teachers, deputy principals and school principals. 25 one-to-one interviews and seven focus groups have been held. Also, the data include responses from 282 teachers collected from the survey that was conducted at all the 30 pilot schools including 24 schools that were not visited. All the teachers in the sample were restricted to just those who taught the new primary curriculum in the pilot schools. The chosen sample generates a representative picture of the attitudes and perspectives of those teachers delivering the new curriculum in the pilot schools for the academic year of 2015-2016.

Results and/or substantiated conclusions or warrants for arguments/point of view

The paper discusses three main points – i) challenges that mainstream schools’ teachers face and experience being in unequal conditions that include a context-bound nuance of transfer, uncertainty, lack of time and resources to implement new curriculum policies and innovations; ii) gaps in understanding and mindsets of the actors across different levels of the whole system of travelling curriculum innovations including local region-level (oblast) departments of education and parents; iii) processes of monitoring the quality of adaptation of educational innovations in respect of pilot schools’ accountability for the translation of the adapted best practice to the neighboring local schools.

Scholarly significance, originality and/or creativity of the study or work

There has been little empirical research highlighting how local education practitioners understand international educational transfer and reception of policy borrowing in their local contexts. Given that recontextualization represents the ‘fields of contest’ (Ball, 1998, 127), this paper argues that context matters (Crossley, 2010) and informed awareness of social and cultural differences is of paramount importance in constructing local meaning of international policy borrowing (Weick, 1995).


Ball, S. J. (1998). Big policies/small world: An introduction to international perspectives in education policy. Comparative education, 34(2), 119-130.

Crossley, M. (2010). Context matters in educational research and international development: Learning from the small states experience. Prospects, 40(4), 421-429.

Law 'On the Status of Nazarbayev University, Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools and Nazarbayev Fund' (2011). Astana, Kazakhstan.

Steiner-Khamsi, G., & Waldow, F. (Eds.). (2012). World yearbook of education 2012: Policy borrowing and lending in education. Routledge.

Weick, K. (1995) Sensemaking in organizations. London: Sage.

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