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2006 - International Studies Association Words: 294 words || 
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1. Omelicheva, Mariya. "There?s No Debate about Using Debates! Instructional and Assessment Functions of Debates in International Studies Curriculum" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p100716_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Most political science educators agree that the preparation of literate and interested citizens is an important teaching and learning objective. The syllabi of political science courses describe the goals of developing higher order cognitive skills, fostering intellectual and moral growth, and instilling affective values, such as intellectual empathy, fair-mindedness, tolerance, and fascination with the subject.There is often a mismatch between the objectives of curricula, on the one side, and activities and assessment tools utilized for the attainment of goals, on the other. Lectures as an instructional tool, and tests, quizzes, and papers as tools of students? evaluation remain the predominant mode of teaching and gauging the learning outcomes. Classroom debates are an excellent teaching and learning strategy aligned with the goals of development of critical thinking and intellectual independence. In addition, debates offer excellent performance assessment opportunities for both instructors and students. Despite many virtues and simplicity in use, debates have not been frequently used in political science courses, in general, or international relations courses, in particular.In my essay, I advocate the use of classroom debates as superior tools of learning, instruction, and evaluation for teaching about different areas of international relations or world politics. The discussion of debates is grounded in psychological theories that explicate how the features of debates can promote abstract thinking, engagement in learning, citizenship and etiquette, clarity, organization, persuasion, public speaking, research, and teamwork and cooperation. I emphasize the evaluative purposes of debates and discuss how they can be used to measure students? achievement, diagnose learning problems, assess the entire instruction process, and even determine student attitudes toward the content of the course and the quality of the instruction. The essay includes concrete examples of classroom debates accompanied by recommendations on debate preparation, presentation, evaluation, and sources for debates.

2005 - APSA Teaching and Learning Conference Pages: 40 pages || Words: 11616 words || 
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2. Omelicheva, Mariya. "There’s No Debate about the Use of Debates! Instructional and Assessment Functions of Debates in Political Science Curricula" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Teaching and Learning Conference, <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p11564_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Most political science educators agree that the preparation of literate citizens able and willing to engage in democratic practices is an important teaching and learning objective. The syllabi of political science courses describe the goals of developing higher order cognitive skills, fostering intellectual and moral growth, and instilling affective values, such as intellectual empathy, fair-mindedness, tolerance, and fascination with the subject.
There is often a mismatch between the objectives of curricula, on the one side, and activities and assessment tools utilized for the attainment of goals, on the other. Lectures as an instructional tool, and tests, quizzes, and papers as tools of students’ evaluation remain the predominant mode of teaching and gauging the learning outcomes. Classroom debates are an excellent teaching and learning strategy aligned with the goals of development of critical thinking and intellectual independence. In addition, debates offer excellent performance assessment opportunities for both instructors and students. Despite many virtues and simplicity in use, debates have not been frequently used in political science courses.
In my essay, I advocate the use of classroom debates as superior tools of learning, instruction, and evaluation. The discussion of debates is grounded in psychological theories that explicate how the features of debates can promote abstract thinking, engagement in learning, citizenship and etiquette, clarity, organization, persuasion, public speaking, research, and teamwork and cooperation. I emphasize the evaluative purposes of debates and discuss how they can be used to measure students’ achievement, diagnose learning problems, assess the entire instruction process, and even determine student attitudes toward the content of the course and the quality of the instruction.
The essay includes concrete examples of classroom debates accompanied by recommendations on debate preparation, presentation, evaluation, and sources for debates.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 28 pages || Words: 11727 words || 
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3. Maurer, Marcus. and Reinemann, Carsten. "The power of emotionally packaged commonplaces. Short-term effects and post-debate consequences of different rhetorical strategies in televised political debates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112600_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite the large body of research on televised debates, some fundamental questions have remained unanswered so far. This is especially true for the way, in which viewers react to different kinds of statements during a debate and the degree to which these short-term reactions influence post debate opinions. Taking the second televised debate in the 2002 national German election as an example, we address both of these questions in this paper. By means of a real-time response measurement, we first identify those statements that were most successful in the audience as a whole and those that polarized supporters and opponents of the candidates. Then, we analyse the content, style and rhetorical means of those statements. In a third step, we investigate the effects of short-term reactions upon post-debate opinions. Our analysis shows that emotionally packaged commonplaces were most successful in the audience as a whole. On the other hand, statements in which the candidates presented factual evidence, specified their political plans or criticised their opponent, tended to polarize supporters and opponents of the candidates. Moreover, short-term reactions did in fact influence viewers' post-debate opinions. This means that it is most effective for candidates in a televised debate not to deal with controversial topics but to address in an emotional way questions in which most of the audience agrees with them. It is very unlikely, though, that this strategy serves democracy.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 15 pages || Words: 6676 words || 
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4. Maier, Juergen. and Faas, Thorsten. "Debates, Media and Social Networks: How Interpersonal and Mass Communication Affected the Evaluation of the Televised Debates in the 2002 German Federal Election" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p11721_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: While research on televised debates predominantly focuses on their direct impact on voters' political beliefs and behavioral intentions, the question of whether debate effects are stable over time has been largely ignored. With data collected in the context of the 2002 German televised debates we demonstrate that evaluations of the candidates' debate performances are highly instable. The reason is that voters compare their own perceptions to the views represented in their social networks and the interpretations provided by the mass media. To avoid dissonances, they adjust their opinions in accordance with the other information channels. While interpersonal communication is more important for the adjustment process after the first debate, mass communication had a greater impact in the context of the second debate.

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 194 words || 
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5. Marion, John. "Why Debate? An Examination of the Origins and Format of Campaign Debates in U.S. Senate Elections" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p82485_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Campaign debates have a long
and rich history as part of elections for the U.S. Congress. Despite
their history there has been little empirical research about how and
why they occur. This study examines the historic and contemporary
origins of campaign debates in U.S. Senate campaigns. Specifically it
considers both the influences for debates to occur as well as the
format for debates. The first part of the analysis investigates how the
environment of elections affects the willingness of candidates to
debate. I explain key theories on debates and test different aspects of
them, including the competitiveness of the race, the culture of the
state, and the experience of the candidates. The second segment of the
analysis looks at how candidates who decide to debate manipulate the
format to their strategic advantage. Variables such as the question
format, number, timing, and broadcast media coverage of debates are
potential targets of candidates seeking a competitive advantage.
To complete the analyses, the paper draws from a unique database on
campaign debates in Senate elections from 1988-2002. By drawing from
such an exhaustive number of data points, this paper draws meaningful
and generalizable conclusions concerning campaign debates. Further, as
part of a broader project, I conclude with several prescriptions for
improving debates in all types of campaigns.

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