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2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 141 words || 
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1. Gould, Jon. and Leon, Kenneth. "A Culture that is Hard to Defend: Extralegal Factors in Defending Federal Death Penalty Cases" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1278104_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: This study examines the disparity in defense resources provided to federal capital defendants and in doing so expands our knowledge of location effects in the bulk of contemporary capital proceedings. We focus on federal cases at the midpoint of the modern federal death penalty and examine the role of local legal culture and the subcultural elements of the courtroom workgroup that lead to widely differential allocations of defense resources and which, in turn, are closely tied to disparate sentencing at trial. As such, we are able to assess the extent to which there is arbitrariness in what should be a standardized, nationwide adjudication process. Further, using defense resources as the dependent variable, and incorporating multiple measures for location effects in regression analyses, we can more accurately detect the extralegal roles of culture, geography, and courtroom workgroup characteristics in capital litigation.

2008 - The Law and Society Association Words: 257 words || 
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2. Prescott, JJ., Laber, Eric., Barnes, Katherine., Miller, Marc. and Wright, Ronald. "The Effects of Judge, Prosecutor, and Defendant Race and Gender Interactions on Defendant Outcomes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Hilton Bonaventure, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 27, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p237093_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Existing work on race and gender disparities in judicial decision making focuses on whether and to what extent judges take race and gender into account in making decisions and on whether a judge’s race or gender affects his or her treatment of criminal defendants generally. While useful, this body of work ignores prosecutorial charging and bargaining behavior at earlier stages of the criminal process and does little to identify, at the trial level, how other players in the system may mitigate or exacerbate inconsistent treatment. We use a unique data set from the New Orleans District Attorney’s (NODA) office to address these weaknesses. Unlike currently available datasets, the NODA dataset allows us to incorporate demographic information on three of the criminal justice system’s key players – judges, defendants, and prosecutors (as well as defense attorney identifiers). It also contains information on the stage preceding a criminal trial or the entry of a plea: the prosecutor’s charging decision, and, importantly, the decision to “decline” cases. We employ panel data methods and a potential outcomes framework (and the random assignment of judges and prosecutors) to 1) test for the existence of inconsistent treatment by judges in light of potential inconsistent treatment occurring at an earlier charging stage and 2) evaluate whether the presence of other players (e.g., prosecutors) from similar or different demographic groups alters judicial sentencing and trial outcomes, a question made salient by recent research on “appellate panel effects.” We present and discuss preliminary results and briefly describe possible policy implications.

2013 - Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 222 words || 
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3. Reese, Ellen. "Defending Homes & Making Banks Pay: California’s Home Defenders League" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Nugget Casino, Reno/Sparks, Nevada, Mar 21, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p634203_index.html>
Publication Type: Formal research paper presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using participant observation and in-depth interviews, my research explores efforts by the Alliance of California Communities for Empowerment (ACCE) to organize homeowners against foreclosures and unfair lending practices in Southern California. Through protest and advocacy, ACCE’s Home Defenders League has helped individual families facing foreclosure to obtain loan modifications and to stay in their homes. ACCE has also worked to build a statewide community-labor coalition, “Make Banks Pay,” to promote policy changes to prevent foreclosures and to make bank executives and other wealthy families pay their fair share of taxes. Already, this coalition has won passage of the Homeowners’ Bill of Rights in California which protects homeowners from bad lending practices, setting an important precedent for other states.

2011 - American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law Words: 100 words || 
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4. Lant, James., Clow, Kimberley. and Cutler, Brian. "Perceptions of defendant culpability in pretrial publicity: The effects of defendant ethnicity and cognitive load" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law, Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, FL, Mar 02, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p482733_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The current study examined whether minority defendants are differentially disadvantaged by negative pre-trial publicity and the impact of cognitive load on potential jurors’ decision making. Participants read an article about a sexual assault case under high or low cognitive load and then rated their beliefs regarding defendant culpability, the amount of evidence against the defendant, and their own impartiality. There was a significant main effect of ethnicity on the amount of evidence participants perceived against the defendant and a marginally significant interaction of ethnicity, cognitive load, and participant sex. The implications of these findings for the justice system are discussed.

2011 - American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law Words: 97 words || 
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5. Hasel, Lisa., Hawkins, Ella. and Stewart, Heather. "How do you know the victim?: Defendant-victim relationship and defendant emotion influence juror decisions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law, Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, FL, Mar 02, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p483474_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Does the presence of testimony about a defendant’s emotions when being questioned by police influence verdicts? If so, are there situations where this testimony is more influential than others? The current research manipulated the relationship of the defendant to the victim (family member or a stranger) and the level of emotion the defendant reportedly portrayed at the crime scene (high, low, no information). If a defendant’s expected and expressed emotions were incongruent, participant jurors thought that the defendant was likely to be guilty, but the opposite was true if the expected and expressed emotions were congruent.

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