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2006 - American Political Science Association Words: unavailable || 
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1. Gerring, John. "What is the Difference between Good Description and Bad Description?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p152811_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding

2006 - American Political Science Association Words: unavailable || 
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2. Uscinski, Joseph. "Preferable Descriptive Representatives? Investigating The Impact of Demographic Attributes of Descriptive Representatives on Substantive Representation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p153116_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 9452 words || 
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3. Park, Hee Sun. and Yun, Doshik. "Societal Descriptive, Societal Injunctive, Ethnic Descriptive, and Ethnic Injunctive Norms in the Context of Organ Donation: A Comparison of White Americans with Korean Americans" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, Nov 11, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p369163_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The current study found that societal descriptive, societal injunctive, ethnic descriptive, and ethnic injunctive norms were distinct from one another among White and Korean Americans. While societal injunctive norm was positively related with intention to register among White Americans, it was negatively related with intention to register among Korean Americans. On the other hand, ethnic injunctive norm was positively related with intention to have family discussion about organ donation among both White and Korean Americans.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 8545 words || 
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4. Dubrow, Joshua. "Do Descriptive Representatives Think Like Descriptive Representatives Should?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p104278_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In a theory of descriptive representation, the composition of the representative body more closely reflects the sociodemographics and experiences of the citizenry. Proponents of this type of representation assert that those elected officials who share similar demographic and experiential characteristics of their constituencies carry with them the sufficient empathy to evaluate and construct representative policy, e.g. women are more likely and are better able to construct policy that benefits women. A fundamental premise of the pro-descriptive representation argument is that parliamentarians will process political information, i.e. think, in accordance with their demographic and experiential characteristics. Analyzing the attitudes underlying the action of representatives such as building descriptive representation policy and other legislative initiatives beneficial to disadvantaged groups is a foundation for understanding whether descriptive representatives are more likely to think and act as expected. I use data of parliamentarians in the Polish Sejm, the Polish Parliamentarian WebSurvey 2005, to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the attitudes of women, farmers, lower class, young, and old parliamentarians toward descriptive representation for gender, social class, and generations. I find that (a) parliamentarians from a disadvantaged background are more likely to support descriptive representation as an abstract ideal but that demographics are not as important in support for voluntary party gender quotas and (b) party ideology plays a significant role in attitudes toward descriptive representation in theory and praxis. Theoretical considerations and directions for future research conclude the paper.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 6612 words || 
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5. Park, Hee Sun., Klein, Katherine. and Smith, Sandi. "The Power of Subjective Norms, University Descriptive and Injunctive Norms, and U.S. Descriptive and Injunctive Norms on Drinking Behavior Intentions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p171838_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Social Norms Approach (SNA) both stress the important influence that normative perceptions have on behavioral intentions and behavior. These 2 approaches were used to examine the behavioral intention to limit drinking to 0 to 4 drinks. Further, this study examined whether perception of subjective norms, university and U.S. level descriptive norms, and university and U.S. level injunctive norms represented separate dimensions for this behavioral intention. A representative sample of 1110 college students completed a web-based survey. The results confirmed that the 5 types of norms were all unique constructs. This study also found that individualsÂ’ intentions to limit their alcohol consumption to 0 to 4 drinks were predicted by positive attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norms. Subjective norms also moderated the relationship between attitudes and behavioral intention. University descriptive norms also served as a moderator. This study has important implications for future normative interventions.

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