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2005 - International Studies Association Pages: 50 pages || Words: 16159 words || 
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1. Zagare, Frank. and Kilgour, Marc. "The Deterrence-vs.-Restraint Dilemma in Extended Deterrence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p72051_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores the deterrence-vs.-restraint dilemma in extended deterrence. We do so within the context of the Tripartite Crisis Game under incomplete information. This model was developed specifically to capture the mixed motives and contradictory impulses that oftentimes frame extended deterrence encounters. To focus the analysis and to gain tractability, we make specific assumptions about the utilities of the players: Challenger, Defender and Protégé. Our most significant simplification concerns Defender’s type. In particular, we assume that Defender, although not heavily invested in the issues in dispute, is known to prefer conflict to the breakup of its strategic relationship with Protégé.

2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 197 words || 
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2. Piquero, Alex., Loughran, Thomas., Fagan, Jeffrey. and Mulvey, Edward. "Differential Deterrence: Studying Heterogeneity and Changes in Perceptual Deterrence among Serious Youthful Offenders" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p373331_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Perceptual deterrence has been an enduring focus of interest in criminology. Although recent research has generated important new insights about how risks, costs and rewards of offending are perceived and internalized, there remain two specific limitations to advancing theories of deterrence: (1) the lack of panel data to show whether issues of changes in perceptions over age and time are linked to changes in offending, and (2) the lack of research on perceptual deterrence of active offenders, arguably the most policy relevant group for these studies. Using longitudinal data on offending and perceptions of risks and punishment costs for a large sample of serious youthful offenders, we identify significant heterogeneity in sanction threat perceptions generally and across different types of offenders. These differences in perception reflect variation among offenders in the amount of prior information on offending on which individuals may be basing their perceptions. There likely exists a potential 'ceiling' and 'floor' of sanction threat perceptions, indicating that there are deterrence boundaries beyond which some types of offenders may be more amenable to sanction threats while others may undeterred by sanction threats. Directions for future theoretical and empirical research are discussed.

2007 - Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 9294 words || 
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3. Benson, Brett. and Niou, Emerson. "A Theory of Dual Deterrence: Credibility, Conditional Deterrence, and Strategic Ambiguity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, IL, Apr 12, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p199260_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Intuition and international relations theory both affirm that commitments should be firm and transparent in order to be credible. Because ambiguity is believed to cut against the credibility of the commitment, it is commonly assumed that ambiguous commitments are inimical to cooperation and invite conflict. Why then do states often choose to make commitments that are deliberately ambiguous? The tension between the current state of international relations theory and empirical international politics presents a puzzle: anomalous ambiguous commitments occur despite prevailing theoretical predictions that they should undermine the credibility of the commitment by signaling weakness, creating incentives for opportunism, and, increasing the chances for misperception. This paper develops a three-party dual deterrence model to demonstrate that the form of commitment is often a strategic choice, and, under certain conditions, ambiguous commitments can actually outperform firmer and more transparent alternatives. We demonstrate that dual deterrence dilemmas require alternative solutions strategies and then introduce and analyze conditional threat and ambiguity strategies. We then show that under certain conditions these strategies can work to deter challengers from destabilizing the status quo when traditional alternatives would have the unintended consequence of bringing about the very outcome they are designed to prevent. The paper makes three important contributions to the study of international politics. First, it shifts our focus from credibility to variation in the type of commitment. Second, it identifies and distinguishes between various deterrence strategies for addressing dual deterrence dilemmas. Third, it challenges our intuition and scholarly presumption that information and transparency are strictly better by identifying some conditions under which actors are better off being ambiguous.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 180 words || 
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4. Park, MiRang. and Hwang, EuiGab. "Deterrence Effect on Robbers and Thieves in Korea: A Comparison between Special and General Deterrence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 16, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p432594_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Unlike many researches on deterrence effects for various types of offending, there is no emprical research to study deterrence effect on robbers and thieves in Korea. Our research questions are asking whether main deterrence factors such as severity, certainty, and celerity stated by classical criminology have been functioning as a main factor to deter robbers and thieves’ behavior. Using the survey of 208 prisoners who have criminal record on robbery, burglary and thief, we are going to find the main deterrence factors in Korea. For the discussion, the informal social control such as family tie, loss of job, loss of interpersonal relationship and individual shame were asked to robbers and thieves as well. Additionally, the survey found the different attitude on the perception toward own criminal behavior and other’s behavior. We found that a factor of certainty is most significant factor to deter criminal’s behavior (special deterrence). However, a severity of punishment is recognized as a significant factor on general deterrence factor even among prisoners as well. Additionally, effective criminal prevention policy will be discussed based on our finding.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 86 words || 
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5. DeWitt, Samuel. and Apel, Robert. "Perceptual Deterrence and Deterrability: Individual Differences and Risk Perceptions in a National Sample" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p575913_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The current project aims to describe and explain change over time in individual perceptions of the risk of arrest in the National Longitudinal
Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97). With an appeal to contemporary models of Bayesian learning, the degree to which risk perceptions are "updated" in
response to personal and vicarious experiences with criminal behavior and arrest will be examined. Furthermore, this study will consider the degree to which perceptual updating in response to past experiences is moderated by a variety of measures of "deterrability" (e.g., present orientation).

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