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2013 - Ninth Annual Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 151 words || 
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1. Pettigrew, Alice. and Burgess, Adrian. "‘Difficult Knowledge’, Difficult Research? Young people thinking and talking about the Holocaust." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Ninth Annual Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 15, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p654480_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The authors of this paper have recently embarked upon an ambitious, mixed-methodological, national study of English secondary school students’ knowledge and understanding of the Holocaust. The paper considers Deborah Britzman’s contention that an encounter with the Holocaust is an encounter with ‘difficult knowledge’ and, using data drawn from the authors’ early field experiences, critically reflects upon the methodological implication of this. If, as Britzman has argued, the Holocaust represents a potentially traumatic disruption of previously held, comforting, assurances and is regularly met with resistance, disavowal and other attempts to contain, deflect or deny such difficulty, then the methodological challenges are profound: What data collection strategies might best enable young people to openly articulate uncertain, uncomfortable or partial ‘knowledge’? What modes of analysis are able to critically explore what is not said and avoided as much as what is ostensibly 'known'? What ethical considerations must this sort of research necessarily entail?

2003 - American Political Science Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 8649 words || 
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2. Levine, Renan. "Pasta Again?!?! Difficult Menu Decisions and the Status Quo Bias" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 27, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p63787_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Scholars of consumer behavior found that people’s decisions are often dependent on the set of options in the choice set. Certain options become more likely to be chosen in the presence of other alternatives. One primary cause of menu-dependent choice behavior is the difficulty of the choice. When a decision is difficult, people will take steps to reduce the amount of difficulty associated with the choice. These decision-makers become more likely to choose options that make the decision easier to justify (Simonson 1989) or reduce the level of anxiety associated with the choice (Pettibone and Wedell 2000). I present evidence from an experiment that investigates how changing the menu of possible answers influences choice difficulty and choice invariance.

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 9933 words || 
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3. Keele, Luke. "Difficult Choices: An Evaluation of Heterogenous Choice Models" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p59491_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 40 pages || Words: 15531 words || 
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4. Watkins, Celeste. "Difficult Dealings: Client Experiences in the Post-Reform Welfare Bureaucracy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106710_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using data from the Welfare, Children, and Families Three-City Study, I explore how clients describe their experiences in the post-reform welfare bureaucracy. I focus specifically on their relationships with their caseworkers and explore how the dual roles of surveillance and support assigned to front-line workers in the restructured institution appear from the client perspective. I argue that the more omnipresent surveillance of clients under welfare reform generates an increased sense of mistrust between clients and workers. At the same time, clients are looking to these street-level bureaucrats to serve as sources of support, information, and resources in their welfare-to-work transitions. As a result, clients are often left to determine for themselves how to make the best use of public servants who may simultaneously serve as advocates and enforcement officers. Further, clients do so in an institution rife with historical and present-day symbolic undercurrents about what it means to be a welfare-reliant mother in an era of one of the most significant social policy reforms in decades. I demonstrate the creative ways in which clients mount resistance to and navigate post-reform welfare bureaucracies.

2006 - American Studies Association Words: 387 words || 
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5. Piatote, Beth. "Difficult Subjects: Reimagining Domestic Relations in the Work of E. Pauline Johnson" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association, Oct 12, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-09-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p113811_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In the early nineteenth century, as the United States and Canada gained ground as emerging nations, the concerns of native peoples shifted from the status of the “foreign” to the “domestic” realm. This movement is marked in a number of ways, including the effort to control both the material and metaphorical workings of the family in law. While early native-colonial relations were shaped around the paradigm of kinship as the language of political negotiation (e.g. treaties were conducted among “brothers” of equal status), this system gradually gave way to the asymmetrical structure of guardian-wardship, codified in the United States in the 1830s by the Marshall Trilogy and beginning 20 years later in Canada through a series of mid-century Indian Acts. In this paper, I explore how Canada’s Indian policies refigured gender relations through its legal codifications of Indian identity and how Canada used the language of “love” and “liberal benevolence” to carry out new kinds of violence against First Nations communities. I examine how the Canadian state attempted to define its policies in opposition to U.S. approaches, and how Native writers worked to disrupt the legal constructions of indigenous families through literary refiguring of native-colonial relations. In particular, I read the work of Mohawk writer Emily Pauline Johnson (1861-1913) within the context of Iroquois legal traditions, drawing specifically upon the political-metaphorical language of Six Nations diplomacy to reveal visions of political relations not fully explored by other critics, who have tended to view the political dimensions of her work within a pan-Indian paradigm. I analyze one of her earliest poems, “Brant: A Memorial Ode” (1886), as a re-imagining of political relations grounded in Six Nations treaty metaphor. Additionally, I analyze two short stories of interracial love, “A Red Girl’s Reasoning” and “Catharine of the ‘Crow’s Nest,’” to explore the ways in which Johnson refigures the national family, reclaims Indian identity, and contests the codified paternalism of the state. I place these stories specifically within the workings of the Indian Act and other policies designed to control the domestic world of native people, particularly women, and provide comparisons of Johnson’s depictions of Indian-white families with other contemporary works by non-native authors. I argue that it is through the multiple and unstable discourses of Canadian, U.S., and Mohawk nationalism that Johnson’s contributions can most fully be appreciated and understood.

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