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2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 374 words || 
1. Holbrook, R. Andrew. "Mass Media and Impression Formation: Does Television Discourage On-Line Candidate Evaluation?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The on-line model of candidate evaluation has been
offered to explain how individuals incorporate information about
political candidates into their impressions of those candidates,
without necessarily remembering the information that contributed
to such impressions (Hastie and Park 1986; Lodge, McGraw, and Stroh
1989; Lodge, Steenbergen, and Brau 1995). Empirical examinations of
this model of impression formation have relied almost exclusively on
textual sources of information (e.g. candidate fact sheets) about
political candidates (Lodge, et al 1989; Lodge, et al 1995; McGraw and
Pinney 1990; McGraw and Steenbergen 1995; McGraw, Hasecke, and Conger
2003; Redlawsk 2001). Given the public’s greater reliance on televised
sources of political information, accounting for any differences in
impression formation when the information source is television as
opposed to a textual document could prove an important step in
understanding processes of public opinion formation. Drawing on
evidence from a controlled laboratory experiment in which the same
information about a fictional candidate is conveyed via a television
infomercial and via a candidate fact sheet, this study examines to what
extent television discourages on-line processes of candidate
evaluation. This expectation derives from an anxiety-driven model of
candidate evaluation. One important way in which television is argued
to differ from textual sources of information is in its tendency to
engage viewers’ emotionally (Neuman, Just, and Crigler 1992; Robinson
and Levy 1986). One emotion in particular, anxiety, is correlated with
higher levels of attention to the political environment and greater
information retention (Marcus, Neuman, and MacKuen 2000; MacKuen,
Marcus, Neuman, Keele, and Wolak 2001). This suggests that if
television encourages anxiety, it makes greater demands on information
processing resources than do other media sources. In line with limited
capacity models of information processing (Lang 2000), this allocation
of limited cognitive resources to the processing of anxiety-inducing
information inhibits other cognitive processes, including
time-of-exposure impression formation. Thus, television might
discourage on-line impression formation, and by fiat encourage
candidate evaluation based on what people can recall from memory at the
time they are called upon to form a summary judgment. This possibility
is discussed in light of findings that recall of candidate-specific
information over time is less than optimal (Lodge, et al 1995). If
television encourages memory-based candidate evaluation, the argument
could be made that this medium contributes to aggregate attitude
instability by encouraging opinions based on fallible memories. Survey
data from The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press
cataloguing media consumption habits and public opinion of political
figures over time will be examined to explore this

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 7178 words || 
2. Ksiazek, Thomas. "Civil Interactivity: Discouraging Hostility in User Comments on News Websites" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The digital transformation of journalism enables new modes of interactivity with the news. This study analyzes user comments across 20 news websites to understand whether these interactions embody civil or hostile qualities and the organizational policies that encourage more productive dialogue. The findings show that discussions among online news users can be characterized as more civil than hostile, and that specific policies regarding user registration, moderation of comments, and reputation management systems are effective facilitators of civil discussion.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 8094 words || 
3. Celik, Nihal. "An Intersectional Analysis of Migrant Networks: The Discouraged Networker Phenomenon" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study provides an intersectional analysis of migrant networks by analyzing by exploring the networking behavior of Central and Eastern European young transmigrant women in the Unites States. The major research question is twofold: 1) What type of social networks do transmigrant women participate in, in their daily lives? 2) Why do they build certain types of networks and not others? Study participants’ networking patterns in the host country showed that they were more likely to build strong ties with their female co-nationals, who were former au pairs and thus shared similar material conditions, everyday struggles and lifestyles with them. They avoided forming or were solely forming weak ties with Americans because the study participants were perceived as class inferiors, and experienced discriminatory and exploitative practices in American host parents, employers, or the institutions that created negative perceptions about Americans. They were also discouraged to form strong ties with their non-au pair co-nationals from different genders, immigration, occupational and class backgrounds because their co-nationals perceived them as ethnic inferiors mainly due to their mode of entrance –au pair employment-and immigrant statuses in the United States. The findings of this research draw on a three-year-long feminist ethnographic study of thirty women who originated from Eastern and Central European post-communist countries, entered the United States through au pair programs and were residing in the Washington, D.C., Metropolitan Area.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
4. Stefanone, Michael., Brouer, Robyn. and Badawy, Rebecca. "Social Media Warrants: Signal Inconsistencies Between Corporate Websites and LinkedIn Discourage Minority Job Candidates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As the United States becomes more diverse, many organizations use their websites to signal they value diversity. However, job candidates have access to a wide range of publically available information when searching for jobs that is not controlled by organizations. Social media tools like LinkedIn may present conflicting signals about organizational values when those signals are compared to official corporate communication, and signal inconsistency likely has negative effects for potential job candidates. Results from an experiment show that when diversity signals from organizations conflict with signals available via LinkedIn, potential job candidates view the organization as less attractive and are less likely to apply for employment. Further, these outcomes are magnified for minority job candidates. Given the importance of cultivating a diverse workforce, these results demonstrate that current diversity recruitment efforts may actually negatively impact the ability of organizations to recruit minorities.

2016 - LRA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
5. McCarthy, Mark. "Transformation through Literature: Reading and Responding to Stories of Human Movement to Discourage Islamophobia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA Annual Conference, OMNI Nashville, Nashville, Tennessee, Nov 29, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <>
Publication Type: Roundtable
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

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