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2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 9717 words || 
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1. Alter, Karen. "Resolving of Exacerbating Disputes: The WTO's New Dispute Resolution Mechanism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p59884_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 1995 the dispute resolution system of the WTO was transformed to make it more effective in enforcing WTO rules. Ironically, the improvements in the dispute resolution system have contributed directly to greater conflict in the WTO. How can improving a system to resolve disputes actually exacerbate conflict? Alter identifies a number of conflict enhancing consequences of the change in the dispute resolution mechanism. Conflict is not per se bad. Indeed if the outcome of this conflict is that governments must better justify participation in the WTO, then conflict is good. But there is a danger that international courts are more likely than most courts to generate conflict, while the international legal and political system is less adept at weathering controversy and addressing valid public concerns. Left unaddressed, conflicts generated by international legal bodies can erode support for the international legal system and multilateral strategies in general. Alter puts forth solutions designed to build into internationally legalised processes political safety valves, greater political sensitivity, and improved accountability, as well as legitimacy enhancing devices. Demonstrated here in the case of the WTO, Alter’s analysis applies to international legal systems generally.

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Words: 43 words || 
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2. da Rosa Siqueira, Natália. "The interaction between the public sector and the private sector in disputes submitted to the Dispute Settlement Body of WTO" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p361237_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Despite being directly affected by decisions made in panels of the Dispute Settlement Body, the private sectors of society do not have standing to litigate before the WTO. In order to submit private-sector cases to WTO, there is a deep concern of pri

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Pages: 21 pages || Words: 5984 words || 
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3. D'ornellas, Maria. and da Rosa Siqueira, Natália. "The interaction between the public sector and the private sector in disputes submitted to the Dispute Settlement Body of WTO" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 02, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p361523_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite being directly affected by decisions made in panels of the Dispute Settlement Body, the private sectors of society do not have standing to litigate before the WTO. In order to submit private-sector cases to WTO, there is a deep concern of private parties to strengthen their relations with government officials of the states. The influence of private sectors in the conduct of foreign policy of a state depends on mechanisms do not always institutionalized, that allow private interests become a matter of national interest. The purpose of this paper is to examine the means by which private parties affect State trade policies through the comparison between the political context of the USA and EC, in which there are rules that stipulates conditions in front of which governments must defend the interests of private parties, and the Brazilian political context, in which the choice of the case that will presented to the WTO is essentially political. We approach these questions by examining evidence from the EC and USA dataset on norms and WTO disputes, as well as interviews with Brazilian Commission officials and leading members of business associations.

2006 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 32 words || 
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4. Wiegand, Krista. "Territorial Dispute MIDs: Costly Signals of Resolve for Other Disputes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p139807_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper addresses the timing of MIDs in territorial disputes. I hypothesize that a challenger state is more likely to initiate a MID when it can achieve bargaining leverage in other disputes.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 243 words || 
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5. Kobayashi, Tomohiko. "Dynamic Process of Transnational Dispute Settlement as an Autopoietic System? Case Studies of Disputes involving WTO, NAFTA, and Domestic Laws" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 24, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178412_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper elucidates dynamic legal process of settling multifaceted transnational disputes by using Gunther Teubner’s network theory, with adjustments.

We cast light on the recent phenomenon in which an across-the-board agreement was made to settle a complex transnational anti-dumping dispute in the North American region that involves multiple parties (states and non-state actors) reached, after a series of separate dispute settlement (DS) proceedings for each segment of the dispute.

In the recent three cases, disputes that have same roots were filed to three separate DS proceedings in accordance with the WTO, the NAFTA and domestic law. Not surprisingly, separate DS proceedings resulted in separate finding that are conflicting each other. But “fragmentation” of the DS system itself is no longer a problem. What is more problematic here is why and how a fragmentized legal dispute is settled by package deal.

To understand a complex legal process, Teubner’s famous theory gives us a useful theoretical framework: his process-based legal pluralism fits the reality of the heterarchical DS mechanism; his network theory focuses on “linkages” between autonomous and decentralized reflections of DS bodies, which enables us to grasp comprehensive picture of a dispute as a whole. On the other hand, the three disputes here at hand resulted in outside-court agreements, without meaningful linkages between the DS proceedings. Rather, the conflicts in findings themselves served as catalyst for pursuing package deal. It provides with a possibility of further sophistication of Teubner’s theory.

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