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2011 - The Law and Society Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 16309 words || 
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1. Queiroz, Rafael., Fabiani, Emerson., Palma, Juliana., Ponce, Carolina. and Silva, Marina. "Isonomy and Distribution in Water Pricing in Brazil: Judging Distributive Criteria in Water Pricing by the Principle of Equal Protection" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Westin St. Francis Hotel, San Francisco, CA, May 30, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p495348_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper describes the main results of an empirical research on a large set of judicial opinions issued by the Tribunal de Justiça of the State of São Paulo, the equivalent of a state Supreme Court in the U.S. Legal System. It intends to show how the constitutional principal of isonomy, or equal protection under the law, is read and applied in cases where a distributive social policy, which is by definition anti-isonomic, is questioned before the Tribunal. The policy in question refers to water distribution and the pricing of water and sewage treatment. Its pricing design is said to be distributive because not all people pay the same value for the water they buy: large and commercial consumers pay more per liter of water in order to generate a financial surplus that allows small and residential consumers to pay less per liter of water, based on a cross-subsidy logic. This surplus also covers the costs of repairs in the water and sewage treatment network, and, more importantly, of expansion in the sewage network to bring potable water and treated sewage to poor peripheral communities. The central hypothesis of the research, which ended up being confirmed by the empirical data, was that the concrete beneficiaries of judicial decisions who used the principle of isonomy to invalidate distributive water pricing criteria used by São Paulo's public administration were not small domestic consumers, but rather large businesses and corporations. The research results further suggest that the main reasons for this are the asymmetric levels in access to justice and in quality of litigation services available to different strata of the population. Aside from this external-point-of-view-diagnosis, the research also formulated and tested some internal-point-of-view-hypotheses, specifically related to the background of Brazilian legal culture and its prevailing privatistic traits. These hypotheses regarded, first, the use and enforcement of private law schemes within disputes public by definition, such as policies for potable water distribution and sewage treatment. Second, the research also drew considerations regarding separation of powers as in general conceived by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988, and specifically concerning the regulatory powers of state-controlled companies that operate under the legal regime of private corporations. In this last topic, the goal of the investigation was to understand how the Justices of the Tribunal de Justiça understood the possibilities and limits of regulation regarding not only the specific institutional design used by the São Paulo public administration, but specially the discretionarity of the regulatory authorities in fixing distributive pricing standards. The paper is divided in three main parts. The first one introduces the research problems and its methodology. The second one explains, synthetically but in some detail, the strategies for universalization of sewage treatment and water distribution in Brazil over the last fifty years, since the pricing policies questioned before the Judiciary were conceived along this stretch of time and can only be understood within this context. The third and last part, the most extensive one, brings the empirical information relevant to the above mentioned hypotheses.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 186 words || 
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2. Britt, Chester. "Relative Distribution Methods and the Test for Distributional Differences in Bail and Sentencing Decisions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1031241_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Relative distribution methods offer a nonparametric approach to testing for similarity and difference in two or more distributions. Analysis of the full distribution of the measure of interest allows for testing differences in location (i.e., central tendency) and in scale (i.e., spread) of cases. Theory often suggests that more than a single point estimate is important for understanding the effects of covariates, yet many tests of theory apply linear models that focus only on an estimate of the conditional mean. Relative distribution methods also allow for adjustments of important covariates that eliminate compositional differences in the groups being compared. For example, when testing for race and ethnicity differences in bail or sentence length decisions, we might first test for overall differences by race-ethnicity. To the extent we find differences, are those differences due to such characteristics as prior criminal history and offense severity? I use bail data from Philadelphia and federal sentencing data to illustrate the application of relative distribution methods – with and without covariates – to show how the use of linear models misses important differences and changes in bail and sentence length.

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Hansen, Martin Ejnar. "Distributing Party and Committee Posts: A Parliamentary Theory of Distribution" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1125206_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Traditionally the study of committees in European parliaments has borrowed its theoretical basis from the well-developed congressional theories of legislative organisation. However, in recent years there has been a growing awareness among European parliamentary scholars that these theories do not work well in parliamentary settings and a different approach might be required. This has not least come out of a wide range of empirical tests of the major theories of legislative organisation, all of which are formulated on the US case, with all the empirical tests coming back inclusive as to which, if any, of the existing theories works best for the parliamentary cases.
Another major criticism is that the existing theories rarely takes government portfolio and party posts into account when analysing the distribution of committee posts and other parliamentary spoils. In this paper a theory of parliamentary distribution of all types of positions, taking into account a) ministerial posts, b) party posts, c) committee posts and d) other legislative spoils that are not committee posts, is proposed. It is argued that when in coalition government some parties will accept fewer and/or less important ministerial posts to increase their committee posts and other legislative spoils, while the intra-party allocation of posts are used to balance the power structures in the parliamentary group.
The proposed theory will be tested on evidence from more than 30 years of data from two Scandinavian Parliaments and more than 15 years of data from two devolved assemblies in the United Kingdom. The different types of data will allow for tests of what happens in minority coalition governments, majority coalition governments and minority single-party governments. The preliminary findings suggest that the distribution of party and committee posts within a coalitional framework has some global properties allowing us to work under the auspices of a parliamentary theory of distribution. However, it is also clear that more work is required for understanding how parliamentary and party posts are distributed in parliamentary systems.

2017 - ARNOVA's 46th Annual Conference Words: 105 words || 
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4. Bergdoll, Jonathan., St. Claire, Mallory., Osili, Una. and Bhattacharyya, Oindrila. "DAFs, Data, and Distributions: An Analysis of Donor-Advised Funds’ Data and Grant Distribution By Subsector" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ARNOVA's 46th Annual Conference, Amway Grand Plaza Hotel, Grand Rapids, Michigan, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1284985_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Donor-advised funds (DAFs) are a rapidly growing element of the philanthropic landscape, realizing an increase of 12,140.3 percent in private funding from 1991-2015 (Philanthropy 400, 2015). Outside of certain studies, there is research that tracks donor-advised fund activity on an annual basis. In this study, we examine existing data sources for donor-advised funds, investigate the overall valuation, growth, and payouts of the funds, and analyze the recipients of DAF grants and compare findings to existing estimates of charitable distributions. We will also develop a new approach to estimating the size and scope of DAF growth, and will compare the findings to extant estimates.

2017 - DSI Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Oestreich, Nathan., Smith, Sheldon., Smith, Lynn. and Willaimson, James. "Directing Required Minimum Distributions, and Voluntary Distributions, to Charity Can Significantly Reduce Federal Income Taxes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the DSI Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington DC, Nov 18, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1292235_index.html>
Publication Type: Full Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The tax code allows certain taxpayers to make direct charitable contributions from their individual retirement accounts (IRAs) without including the transferred amount as income. This paper explores this law and the possible benefits, especially as it affects the tax on social security benefits. Potential tax reform is also addressed.

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