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2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 32 pages || Words: 8433 words || 
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1. Chen, Ming-chi. "Organizational Life and Death in Industrial Districts: Event History Analysis of District vs. Non-district Bicycle Firms in Taiwan, 1980-1996" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106544_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Industrial districts, i.e. the spatial concentration of complmentarily specialized firms of the same industry, have aroused much interest among social scientists. Proponents argue that indusrtial districts demonstrate the beginning of a reverse of industrial order from giant corporations back towards regional economies organized around networks of small firms. This paper employs event history analysis on business failure rates of Taiwan's bicycle firms from 1980 to 1996 to examine propositions derived from the industrial district theory. I find that district firms do out-survive the non-district ones, as predicted by the theory. In the context of industrial districts, specialists have higher survival advantage. But small firms benefit less from the district settings than the big ones, contrary to the received wisdom among students of industrial districts. I conclude with some re-thinking about the industrial district theory.

2008 - UCEA Annual Convention Words: 212 words || 
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2. Wayman, Jeffrey., Cho, Vincent. and Johnston, Mary. "The Data-Informed District: A District-Wide Evaluation of Data Use in the Natrona County School District" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the UCEA Annual Convention, Buena Vista Palace Hotel and Spa, Orlando, Florida, <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p274989_index.html>
Publication Type: Symposium Paper
Abstract: For years, educational entities have collected data on school process and student learning. Recent accountability policies have brought public attention to these data, increased the amount of data collected, and tied funding to certain characteristics of these data. Consequently, educators respond to reporting requirements while simultaneously struggling with better ways to understand these data internally to improve practice. To understand and improve district data use, individuals from the Natrona County School District (NCSD) commissioned a district-wide evaluation of data uses and procedures for data-based decision-making. In this report, we present findings from this evaluation. Results provided an in-depth description of data use at every level, showing the hardships of using data but also highlighting many positive structures upon which to build an effective initiative. As a result of this evaluation, the authors recommended the following: (a) a framework to guide NCSD in establishing itself as a data-informed district where data and practice are integrated throughout; (b) a plan for acquiring an efficient data system that can integrate data district-wide; (c) a blueprint for NCSD to use in establishing a healthy, district-wide data initiative; and (d) specific issues for NCSD to address in getting up to speed on data use, such as school dropouts, school differences, public perception, and areas for further study.

2010 - UCEA Annual Convention Words: 185 words || 
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3. Stoll, Jeremy. "Building Cultural Awareness at the District Level: Developing a District “Culture” Committee" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the UCEA Annual Convention, Sheraton New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p437837_index.html>
Publication Type: Symposium Paper
Abstract: Raising cultural awareness is an important initial step in developing cultural competence (Evans, 2007; López, 2003; Scheurich & Skrla, 2003). This paper explores the process of developing cultural awareness (i.e. increasing awareness of diverse students’ and their unique needs) from a campus middle school to the district level. Using survey, interviews, and focus group data of multiple stakeholders, this action research project identified the need to develop cultural awareness of its largely White teaching staff at a school that is seeing increased African American and Latina/o enrolment. As this research continued, the emerging school leader transitioned from being a teacher to an Assistant Principal and took this action research to the district-wide level. By establishing a district “culture” committee, this paper will share the process the aspiring school leader negotiated to take his social justice work from the campus to district level. In particular, this paper will highlight building a counterspace (Ladson-Billings & Tate, 1995; Solórzano, Ceja, & Yosso, 2000) by engaging in difficult conversations and building a network of social justice leaders within the district. Implications for both research and practice will be shared.

2011 - UCEA Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 8265 words || 
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4. Orr, Margaret. "When Districts Drive Leadership Preparation Partnerships: Lessons from Six Urban Districts’ Initiatives" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the UCEA Annual Convention, Westin Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, Online <PDF>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p523230_index.html>
Publication Type: Symposium Paper
Abstract: In recent years, foundation and federal funding have encouraged urban districts to invest significantly in leadership preparation as a critical lever for improving schools and student learning. Through one initiative, six districts took aggressive steps to design leadership preparation programs that addressed their specific leadership needs and school improvement priorities. All six engaged universities as partners in this process but varied widely on how equitable and collaborative this partnership came to be. All six gained a number of new leaders over the 4-6 years of their programs, benefiting their schools and improvement efforts. This paper draws on case study research conducted in 2009-10 on these six programs and their related partnerships (Orr, King, & La Pointe, 2010), as cross-case analysis. The focus is on the nature of the partnerships, their contributing and challenging factors, and how these partnerships evolved over time. By looking across six partnerships—which were similarly driven by district priorities and funding—this paper attempts to identify the ways in which districts gave priority to leadership preparation and aligned it to their other school improvement systems and strategies.
The paper draws on coupling theory (Weick, 1976) and research on effective collaboration (Langman & McLaughlin, 1993). The results show that district-university affiliations require three types of relationships, each of which present challenges and opportunities based on goals, structures, and processes and their degree of tight/loose coupling. These are: (1) inter-organizational: between districts and universities in support of the district-affiliated program, (2) intra-organizational: between the district-affiliated program and other parts of the district itself, and (3) intra-organizational: between the district-affiliated program and other parts of the affiliated university. Looser, informal district-university relationships were better suited to address ongoing program issues and decision making required for candidate recruitment and selection and program content, and offered flexibility amidst district and university leadership turnover. Such informality and loose inter-institutional relationships had drawbacks, as decision making was ad hoc, without systemic input, and there was often no means for formal program review, monitoring, and feedback. The relationship between the district-affiliated program and the participating university was dependent on the characteristics of the university, program roles and responsibilities within the university, university-related resource expectations were; and programs fit within the university’s organizational structure.

2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 726 words || 
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5. Yulianti, Kartika. and Lane, Kevin. "District Influence on Instructional Leadership: A Case from Two Districts in Michigan, USA" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Mar 10, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p642974_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: District Influence on Instructional Leadership: A Case from Two Districts in Michigan, USA
Kartika Yulianti & Kevin Lane
Michigan State University
yulianti@msu.edu

Background
Strong leadership is the key to the success of an organization and a school is no exception. As the great historical figures above imply, leaders inspire the best work of others and therefore will magnify the positive effects that they have on the work that they do. School leadership is second only to teaching on the impact on student learning. In a review of the recent literature on Principals influence, Printy (2010) found that Principal leadership is important to student learning, in that Principals influence student learning by working with (or through) teachers or other classroom-related factors. Student achievement is higher in schools where Principals and teachers work collaboratively. In recent decade, there are two primary images of leadership that have prevailed, transformational leadership and instructional leadership (Hallinger, 1992). Of the many forms of leadership that exist, transformational leadership has been shown to be among the most effective and necessary for school and district leaders to demonstrate. A transformational leader will be able to use the most valuable human resources to the fullest, but the school leader must involve teachers in the decision making and focus on the importance of quality instruction to truly be able to educate students to their fullest potentials. Instructional leadership that was developed during the effective schools movement of the 1980s viewed Principal as the primary source of educational expertise. In a study that examined teachers’ perspectives on how Principal promotes teaching and learning in schools, Blase & Blase (1999) revealed two major dimensions of effective instructional leadership: talking with teachers to promote reflection and promoting professional growth. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of school district leaders on instructional leadership of the school leaders.
Research Questions:
1. How do district leaders (e.g. superintendent, Principal supervisor) influence the quality of instruction in the district?
2. How do district leaders establish leadership relationships with Principals intended to ensure the quality of instruction?
Method
Sample and Data
The sample used in this study is that of convenience. The superintendent and Principal interviewed are colleagues of one of the primary researchers on this project. A set of interview questions was provided were similar for both respondents with a few differences based on perspective of each position.
Analytic Approach
To analyze the interviews collected the transcripts are beingwere coded to find examples of both the 4 I’s as discussed by Bass ((1) idealized influence, (2) intellectual stimulation, (3) individual consideration, and (4) inspirational motivation.) and Murphy’s (1990) identification of four sets of activities with implications for instruction in productive schools a)developing the school mission and goals; b)coordinating, monitoring, and evaluating curriculum, instruction, and assessment; (c) promoting a climate for learning; (d) creating a supportive work environment (Murphy, 1990).
Examples of each of the 4 I’s will be listed and compared for similarities, differences, conflictions and missing elements that may not have been mentioned at both the school and superintendent level. This analysis will be repeated using Murphy’s 4 identified sets of activities. A final analysis will be made identifying examples of shared leadership at each level.
Results
The district examined shows that both the superintendent and principal that were interviewed use many aspects of transformational and shared instructional leadership to guide instruction in their building and throughout the district. It is evident that a great deal of emphasis is placed on using the skill and expertise available in the human resources of the teachers and various levels of administration. This being a larger district, the influence of the superintendent is filtered through various levels of bureaucracy and therefore the direct instructional influence is limited. This superintendent has managed to emphasize learning at all levels through monthly or bimonthly meetings that directly influence the work of principals at the school level. The principal interviewed used this guidance along with a great trust and support of the expertise of the teaching staff to obtain consistent strong results in a changing curricular environment.
It would be important to have discussions with the directors of Elementary and Secondary Education that supervise the principals and curriculum coordinators who provide instructional coaching, training and support for teacher instruction.
Significance of the Study
The comparative study across the states or even international comparative study on district influence on instructional leadership may bring new insights for the school improvement through educational leadership.

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