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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Jankowski, Kathryn. and Pfeifer, Jennifer. "Smarter than you, nicer, and more attractive too! Early adolescent domain-general and domain-specific Better-Than-Average Effect" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p955055_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Most people think they are better than everyone else. In general, people tend to report being better at valued activities and more likely to possess positive traits than the average person; they are likely to attribute positive traits to themselves at a relatively higher rate and negative traits at a lower rate. This bias, known as the Better-Than-Average Effect (BTAE), is one of the most widely replicated phenomena in social psychology (see Alicke, 1985; Brown, 2012). While there is ample support for a BTAE in adults, very few studies have explored this bias within developmental samples (Hoorens, 1995; Kuyper, Dijkstra, Buunk, Margaretha, & van de Werf, 2011).

Adolescence is a significant period of self-concept development, shaped by social, cognitive, and physical changes. As self-exploration increases and cognitive abilities mature, adolescent self-perceptions become more differentiated across contexts and domains. The current study investigated the presence of a domain-general BTAE (BTAEg) during early adolescence, as well as whether and how this bias extends across multiple, distinct domains (BTAEs, BTAEn, BTAEp, representing social personality, nonsocial personality, and physical BTAE, respectively).

Using a 5-point Likert scale, 27 early adolescents (10-14 years, M=12.72, 10 males) separately rated to what extent a given trait represented themselves and most same-sex peers, as well as rated trait desirability. The task included 60 traits, representing social personality (“loyal”, “rude”), nonsocial personality (“intelligent”, “unimaginative”), and physical (“attractive”, “unhealthy”) domains, equated by valence. To create relative ratings, we subtracted peer-evaluations from self-evaluations. We predicted that early adolescents would exhibit a significant BTAEg, BTAEs, and BTAEn, while BTAEp would be weaker than these three effects or non-existent. Furthermore, perceived domain competence, domain importance, and trait desirability would modulate domain-specific effects.

Participants demonstrated a significant BTAEg, BTAEs, BTAEn, and BTAEp (Figure 1), replicating findings from our pilot [N=15 early adolescents (11-14 years, M=13.14, 7 males)]. BTAEs was significantly larger than BTAEn and BTAEp; BTAEn was also significantly larger than BTAEp (Figure 2). BTAEs and BTAEn were positively correlated, r(25)=0.57, p=0.002. Additionally, BTAEs was positively correlated with perceived behavioral competence, r(25)=0.38, p=0.050; and BTAEp was positively correlated with perceived athletic competence, r(25)=0.71, p<0.001. Correlations between each trait’s relative rating and desirability were calculated and entered into a repeated measures ANOVA, revealing that BTAEs and BTAEn were significantly more strongly correlated with trait desirability than BTAEp, [t(38)=2.64, p=0.012; t(38)=4.76, p=0.001].

Our study shows that early adolescents, similar to young adults, demonstrate a large domain-general BTAE, suggesting that this bias is pervasive and develops at least by early adolescence. Additionally, we offer primary evidence for large domain-specific BTAE in early adolescence, representing social personality, nonsocial personality, and physical domains. The BTAE is particularly salient within the social domain, perhaps reflecting adolescence as a period of significant social reorientation. Social BTAE is influenced by perceived behavioral competence, while physical BTAE is influenced by perceived athletic competence. Furthermore, trait desirability more strongly modulates personality BTAE (both social and nonsocial) than physical BTAE. Future studies should explore the BTAE in younger children, and across atypical development.

2012 - 4S Annual Meeting Words: 106 words || 
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2. Weinel, Martin. "Domain-Specific Discrimination and Technological Decision-Making in the Public Domain" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting, Copenhagen Business School, Frederiksberg, Denmark, <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p580206_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Abstract: Based on an analysis of empirical material related to a policy-relevant technical controversy in South Africa about the safety of anti-retroviral drugs a new type of expertise is explicitly recognised. ‘Domain-specific discrimination’ (DSD) refers to the ability of those immersed in a specialised domain to make technical judgements on the basis of their intimate social knowledge of such a domain. DSD has been implicitly recognised by sociologists of scientific knowledge since the 1970s, but its explicit recognition not only adds an ‘element’ to the ‘Periodic Table of Expertises’, but might also have implications for thinking about the extent of lay participation in technical decision-making.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 534 words || 
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3. Ramani, Geetha., Jaeggi, Susanne., Daubert, Emily. and Buschkuehl, Martin. "Domain-General and Domain-Specific Training to Improve Low-income Children’s Mathematics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p954882_index.html>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: Children from low-income backgrounds are known to be at a high risk for developing mathematical learning disabilities and having poor mathematical achievement in school (Jordan & Levine, 2009). This is partly because their foundational numerical knowledge trails behind their peers from middle-income backgrounds, with differences beginning even before children enter formal schooling. According to Geary and Hoard’s framework (2005), difficulties in children’s mathematical achievement may be due to both domain-specific numerical knowledge and domain-general processing abilities.

In the present study, we tested the specificity of training activities for improving the mathematical achievement of kindergarteners from low-income backgrounds using two approaches. The first approach involved a domain-specific intervention targeted towards improving children’s understanding of numerical magnitudes. The second approach involved a domain-general intervention targeted towards improving children’s underlying cognitive system, specifically, their working memory (WM) skills. Both interventions involved playing game-like activities on tablet computers.

We randomly assigned kindergarteners (n=81; 56% boys; Mage= 6 years 0 months) from predominantly low-income backgrounds into one of three conditions. In the domain-general condition, children played a WM game that involved recalling increasingly long sequences of colored stimuli. In the domain-specific condition, children played a board game with numbers 0-100 resembling Chutes and Ladders against a computer opponent. Children played the games for 10 sessions for approximately 10 minutes each. Children in the control condition engaged in their regular on-going classroom activities. As pretest and posttest measures, children were administered three WM assessments: following directions (“Put the red pencil in the blue folder”), forward digit recall (“Repeat this list of numbers.”), and backward digit recall (“Repeat this list of numbers backwards.”). Children were also administered three numerical knowledge assessments: 0-100 number line estimation (“Where does N go on the number line?”), numeral identification (‘‘What number is this?’’), and arithmetic problems (“What is 4 + 2?”).

We found that playing both the domain-specific number training games as well as the domain-general WM training games significantly improved children’s performance in number line estimation (Table 1 and Figure 1, number game: t(26)=6.71, p<.001, d=.89; WM game: t(26)=3.59, p<.01, d=.68) and numeral identification, (number game: t(26)=2.80, p<.05, d=.54; WM game: t(26)=3.61, p<.01, d=.70). We also found that both the number and WM games improved children’s performance on the backward digit recall task (number game: t(26)=2.21, p<.05, d=.43; WM game: t(25)=2.33, p<.05, d=.46). There were no comparable improvements on the math or WM measures for the no-contact control group. As compared to the control group, the effect sizes for the gains in number line estimation and number identification ranged between small and medium (d=.37), and the effect sizes for the gains on the backward digit recall were small (d=.27). It is possible that the lack of significant gains in the arithmetic, following directions, and forward digit recall tasks was partly due to low measurement quality and the appropriateness of these tasks for this age group.

Overall, our data provide evidence that playing numerical knowledge and WM tablet games can both promote the numerical knowledge of kindergarten children from low-income backgrounds.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Banse, Holland., Curby, Timothy. and Palacios, Natalia. "Longitudinal Relations Between Domain-Neutral and Domain-Specific Instructional Practices in Fifth-Grade Mathematics Classrooms" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p954264_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Effective teaching is comprised of a variety of interconnected elements. Among these elements are domain-neutral (DN) practices, which are instructional practices that are not dependent on a content area, and domain-specific (DS) practices, which are content-dependent instructional practices. Examples of DN practices include teacher warmth, implementing routines for classroom transitions, and encouraging students to employ higher-order thinking (Cameron, Connor, & Morrison, 2005; Hamre & Pianta, 2005). Within a mathematics context, examples of DS practices include offering conceptual mathematical tasks which students can solve using multiple strategies, encouraging students to communicate their mathematical understanding, and well-structured, conceptually streamlined lessons (Hiebert et al., 2005; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2000). Few studies have examined longitudinal relations between DN and DS practices. We examine potential bidirectional relations between these two types of practices over one academic year (Figure 1). We hypothesize that initial use of a DN practice may be associated with higher levels of a DS practice later in the school year, and vice versa.

Methods:
Using three time points of data from 59 teachers in a large, sociodemographically diverse Mid-Atlantic school district, we measured DN practices using the Emotional Support, Instructional Support, and Classroom Organization dimensions of the Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS) (Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008); we measured DS practices using the Tasks, Coherence, and Discourse dimensions of the Mathematics-Scan (M-SCAN) (Walkowiak, Berry, Meyer, & Ottmar, 2014). Data was analyzed using an autoregressive, cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM) framework in AMOS v 19.0 (Arbuckle, 2010).

Results:
Findings reveal two DN to DS associations and one DS to DN association (Figure 2). No bidirectional relations were found. The two DN to DS trends indicate that early emotional support and classroom organization were associated with later mathematical discourse and coherence, respectively. The opposite trend, a DS practice to a DN practice, reveals that early implementation of tasks was associated with later instructional support.

Discussion & Implications:
The DN to DS results indicate a need for the early establishment of emotional support in order to create a classroom atmosphere in which students become willing to participate in mathematical discourse as the year progresses (Patrick et al., 2003; Turner et al., 2003). Similarly, a well-organized classroom with effective routines and expectations for student behavior during mathematics lessons may decrease disruptions to learning and subsequently improve both lesson structure and clarity over the course of the school year (Brophy & Good, 1986; Cameron, Connor, & Morrison, 2005). The DS to DN finding indicates that teachers need to initially provide high-quality tasks for students to grapple with, so that as the school year continues, teachers can target their instructional support precisely towards students’ needs, and help students to maintain a high level of engagement with the tasks (Henningsen & Stein, 1997; Stein & Lane, 1996; Stein & Smith, 1998). We provide suggestions for teachers, principals, and instructional coaches based on our findings.

2017 - Leading Learning for Change - AECT Words: 52 words || 
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5. Eliot, Joy. and Hirumi, Atsusi. "A Domain Without Verbs: Reasons Warranting a New Affective Domain Taxonomy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Leading Learning for Change - AECT, Hyatt Regency Jacksonville Riverfront, Jacksonville, Florida, Nov 07, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-10-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1263067_index.html>
Publication Type: Concurrent Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Critical literature review arguing that education theory continues to lack a valid, reliable and ethical taxonomy and related objectives for the affective domain. Such an achievement would ground affective e-learning in theory and lead to greatly accelerated change and learning in affective domain and mixed cognitive-affective designs for both K-12 and industry.

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