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2011 - RSA Annual Meeting Words: 151 words || 
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1. Swartwood House, Anna. ""Nothing has been done that has not been done before": Rethinking Invention in Giorgio Vasari's Life of Antonello da Messina" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the RSA Annual Meeting, Hilton Montreal Bonaventure Hotel, Montreal, Quebec Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p481029_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In his biography of Antonello da Messina, Vasari credits the painter with traveling to Flanders to apprentice under Jan van Eyck — the so-called "inventor" of the oil medium — and then bringing the "secret" formula to Italy. Yet in a passage little-noticed by scholars, at the end of the vita Vasari grapples not only with the legacy of Antonello but also with the broader history he has just written: he considers whether oil painting existed among the ancients and whether van Eyck's invention surpassed them. Vasari concludes by paraphrasing Terence: "even as nothing has been said that has not been said before, perhaps nothing has been done that has not been done before." This paper considers Vasari's recourse to Terence in light of the tensions inherent in mapping a coherent history of art onto the biography of an artist, while also highlighting other suggestive Florentine Renaissance uses of the phrase.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 150 words || 
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2. Brownlee, Jason. "The Illusion of Nation-Building: Why the U.S. has Done Best When It has Done Less" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251263_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Post-9/11 security concerns and the US-led invasion of Iraq have renewed scholarly interest in nation-building as a form of externally-fostered democratization. Recen works have assessed Iraq and its precursors to find general lessons for establishing new democracies. They have principally concluded that successful nation-building depends on sustained commitments of time, materiel, and manpower. Although this thesis improves upon earlier studies of democracy promotion, which often treated intentions as determinative, it does not fully reckon with the effect of antecedent conditions on external intervention. As this paper addresses, American efforts at nation-building have historically been enabled or constrained by local political institutions. Rather than autonomously reengineering the target society, nation-builders have buttressed bureaucracies and parliaments where they were available (Germany, Japan) and foundered in countries that lacked such institutions (Somalia, Haiti). In sum, nation-building has been most effective when pursued least ambitiously, amid functioning states with prior experience in constitutional government.

2009 - ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING Words: 466 words || 
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3. Liotta, Peter. "The Rise of the 21st Century Megacity, Why It Matters, and What Could Be Done" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA - ABRI JOINT INTERNATIONAL MEETING, Pontifical Catholic University, Rio de Janeiro Campus (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Jul 22, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p381166_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: By 2015, the world will have 58 cities with populations in excess of five million. Some—Lagos, Cairo, Dhaka, Karachi, Mumbai, and Jakarta—are defined as “megacities” (with populations of at least ten million) and are already bursting at their figurative seams. Many are located in states that are incapable of providing the scale of law enforcement, public health, educational and social services that large cities require. Indeed, many of these cities are already overflowing and literally ungoverned, if not yet ungovernable. Yet they continue to grow rapidly. They are unlike anything the world has ever seen. In the coming decades, if protective and remedial measures are not taken, some of these cities will pose the most significant threat to international security.

There are, of course, are significant differences in the cultures and histories of the world’s largest cities, but there are also important similarities among the ones that will pose a threat in the future. Each has experienced sudden population booms during unsettled periods in their national histories. In each, municipal and national governments have managed only to ride the urban tiger, not tame or even declaw it. As a result the masses of people crowded into the huge cities of tomorrow will literally have nowhere else to go, and if left to their own devices by inept or uncaring governments, their collective rage, despair, and hunger must eventually erupt in turmoil—destabilizing entire regions of the world. And until then, these unmanageable cities will continue to pollute their environs, provide bases for organized crime and private militias, and export their residents in the form of terrorist recruits and desperate suicide operatives. Some may, in fact, become huge Gazas—effectively run by terrorist groups, paramilitaries, or organized crime, under the nominal protection of nation states that are strong enough to assert their rights to sovereignty, but little else. Only these Gazas will be intimately connected with the rest of the world through globalization of the international economy.

Much of the rapid urbanization taking place in the world occurs in the “10/40” window (the area between latitude 10 and 40 that includes many of the world’s hot zones). Without doubt, unchecked growth in the “10/40” window of the so-called developing world will change the face of the global map in the twenty-first century. That much of this part of the world is also home to very serious religious and ethnic tensions, including radical Islam’s challenge to the West, only makes the megacity threat worse.

This paper examines why the UN, the U.S., and other economically advanced states, have not taken effective action to offset these looming threats to the environment, human security and international national security. The paper also offers policy recommendations that should be adopted to help weak or poorly equipped states better manage the challenges of skyrocketing urban populations.

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