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2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 196 words || 
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1. Paquet-Clouston, Masarah-Cynthia. and Decary-Hetu, David. "Selling and Buying Drugs on The Internet: A Qualitative Analysis of Drug Vendor and Drug User Interactions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1031890_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: Drug vendors and drug users have become familiar over the past few years with a new way to buy and sell drugs: the cryptomarkets. Cryptomarkets are virtual anonymous marketplaces that work like Amazon or eBay, but specialize in the sale of illicit drugs. To protect their participants, cryptomarkets have adopted a number of technological innovations like virtual currencies and anonymous connections using the Onion Router (TOR). In order to facilitate transactions and information sharing, cryptomarket administrators have created online discussion forums. Participants routinely interact in these forums to talk about what they have to sell, their past experiences with vendors and the drug trade in general. This project aims to study the interactions between vendors and buyers on the forum of the first cryptomarket, Silk Road. Using both content and conversational analysis, it will seek to understand how drug vendors build their online identity, the marketing strategies that the vendors use as well as the relationship between drug vendors and drug buyers. The results of this study will help to better design the nature of interactions (e.g. professional, friendly or hostile) between sellers and buyers of these markets, as well as issues and risks underlying them.

2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 151 words || 
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2. Gilliam, Jay. and Damphousse, Kelly. "The Decision of Where to Purchase Drugs: How Individual Characteristics Influence Where Drug Users Go to Purchase Their Drugs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p200326_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The following research examines why drug users are less likely to purchase their drugs from closed-air drug markets. Based on the assumption that it is safer for a drug user to purchase their drugs from indoor closed-air drug markets, we examine certain individual-level variables that make drug users less likely to purchase their drugs indoors. The closed-air drug markets that are examined in this research are marijuana, crack cocaine, powder cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine. We use data from the National Institute of Justice’s Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program to conduct this analysis. In this research, we find that the location of where drug users purchase their drugs varies by race, level of education, unemployment status, current and past arrest record, homelessness, and level of drug dependency. These findings demonstrate how certain individual variables can influence the decision of where drug users go to purchase their drugs.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 95 words || 
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3. Rossman, Shelli. "Do Adult Drug Courts Work? Drug and Crime Outcomes from NIJ’s Multi-Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p431432_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper presents findings concerning relapse and recidivism using information from NIJ’s MADCE offender panel surveys, bioassay, and 24-month post-enrollment criminal justice records. Using 6- and 18-month follow-up survey data and oral test results, we report on: 1) the trajectory of recovery; and 2) whether, and for whom, drug courts work in terms of reducing drug use. Using survey and administrative data, we address: 1) whether drug courts impact crime and incarceration; 2) to what extent these effects are durable over time; and, 3) whether drug courts are most effective for high- or low-risk offenders.

2013 - The Law and Society Association Words: 357 words || 
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4. Bi, Yingxi. "Drug Decriminalization Policies: A Human Rights Based Approach to Drug Policy toward Drug Users" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, MA, May 30, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p635311_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Current international drug control system, which places emphasis on law enforcement and criminal sanctions, developed and continues to be interpreted in a human rights vacuum. The omission of human rights principles at the international level is reflected in domestic drug policies worldwide. The enforcement of drug policy oftentimes leads to the systematic violation of the rights of drug users. Such violations include, police brutality, the erosion of due process and inhuman or degrading punishment. The fact that an individual uses and/or is dependent upon drugs does not strip that person of their human rights. Criminalize people who simply use drugs is causing devastating consequences for individuals, raising costs of governments, fuels the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. Research shows that the patterns of drug use and related problems operate independently of drug laws and practices. The initiate practice of decriminalize consumption and possession of drugs for personal use in some countries, such as Portugal, suggested reduction in drug-related public health problems.
In order to get an idea of the legal framework within which drug users fall, this paper will begin by examining the major international drug control conventions and rules of international human rights law applicable to drug users. The position of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and United Nations’ human rights bodies will also be considered. To illustrate the practical effect that the enforcement of drug policy can have, a number of domestic systems will be surveyed. The latter exercise will demonstrate how the criminalize drug users can lead to the systematic violation of human rights in areas such as, law enforcement activities, the prosecution process, detention, prison and in the broader social system such as health care.
The overall aim of this research is to bring to the fore, an issue that has received insufficient consideration. It is hoped that by highlighting the institutionalization of human rights abuses in domestic legal systems and policy structures in relation to the regulation of drug use, academics, policy makers and practitioners will be encouraged advocating for a human rights based approach to drug policy starting from halt the practice of arresting and imprisoning people who simply use drugs.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 153 words || 
Info
5. Li, Spencer., Zhao, Ruohui., Liu, Haiyan. and Zhang, Hongwei. "Reexamining the Drugs-crime Linkage: Focusing on Drug Dependence and Drug-related Offenses" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-07-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1277517_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Evidence on the relationship between drugs and crime has been inconclusive. One of the reasons for the inconsistency is a misconception that drug use is equivalent to drug dependence. Another reason is the use of criminal activities that are loosely related to drug problems to measure the potential influence of drug use. To improve on previous research, this study focuses on drug dependence as a predictor of crime. Further, it uses criminal behavior specifically related to drug use to measure the impact of drug dependence. This approach lends more validity to the empirical results. Through the analysis of data collected from a large sample of male and female drug users in China, the current study shows that drug dependence significantly and positively predicts drug-related crime. The relationship between drug dependence and the prevalence and incidence of crime remains significant after controlling for common correlates of crime, including self-control, social bond, and deviant association.

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