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2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 244 words || 
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1. Gartrell, John. "Emancipated But Not Free: The Post-Emancipation Apprenticeship System in Frederick County, Maryland, 1864-1870" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p436022_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: After declaring emancipation on 1 November 1864, many of Maryland’s former slaveholders petitioned their county Orphans’ Courts to keep freed children bound as apprentices. Previous studies of the post-Emancipation apprenticeship system have focused primarily on the planter counties of Eastern Shore and Southern Maryland. However the focus of this work is to uncover and analyze the social conditions of those freed persons directly affected by apprenticeships in the western region of the state, specifically, Frederick County, Maryland, from 1864-1870.

This study uses an Afrocentric and subaltern theoretical approach to analyze the 111 cases of African American apprenticeship, focusing on the lives of both children and parents from the Frederick County’s Orphans’ Court records. Important demographics on these children are reaped from these records, including the names, ages and the assignment of menial labor like farming and domestic duties. All of this meant that freed children were indeed the most vulnerable people in the wake of Emancipation. They were left in the hands of a white master before freedom was fully realized.

The immediate legacy of Frederick County’s post-Emancipation apprenticeship system is also assessed through locating apprenticed children in 1870 US Federal Census and analyzing their socio-economic condition. The overall impact of apprenticeship was the implementation of a system that allowed white owners to maintain social and economic hegemony after the demise of slavery while limiting opportunities for familial development, economic sovereignty, and social independence among this group of the first emancipated generation in Frederick County.

2011 - 96th Annual Convention Words: 120 words || 
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2. Greene, Larry. "War, Emancipation, Misgenation Phobias, and Colonization Solutions, and Emancipation in New Jersey's 1860 & 1864 Presidential Elections" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA, <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p522132_index.html>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: This essay explores the defeat of Abraham Lincoln in the1860 and 1864 presidential elections in New Jersey. The only northern Union state that he lost in both elections. The issues of prolonged war and numerous defeats of the Army of the Potomac are only a partial explanation of this conservative northern state's rejection of Lincoln. Compounding the Republican's electoral problems were a hostile white working class population, both native-born and immigrant, that feared black emancipation would lead to massive freedmen immigration to New Jersey and the social and economic deterioration in their position. The paper will also explore New Jersey Republican and Lincoln's attempts to counter Democratic Party exploitation of these fears through arguments of colonization and military necessity.

2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 92 words || 
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3. Gartrell, John. "Emancipated But Not Free: The Post-Emancipation Apprenticeship System" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p436167_index.html>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: Maryland’s emancipation on November 1, 1864 ushered in a post-Emancipation apprenticeship system of newly freed children that re-attached these children to white masters at the dawn of freedom. The study unveils the characteristics of the apprenticeship system in Frederick County, MD, seeking to uncover the once unknown names of apprentices from this region , the conditions of apprenticeship, and the economic impact of both participants and victims of the system. Finally the study examines the immediate impact of apprenticeships by charting the socio-economic status of apprentices through the 1870 US Census reports.

2011 - 96th Annual Convention Words: 164 words || 
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4. Johnson, Andre. "Celebrating the Emancipation: Bishop Henry McNeal Turner's Reflection on the Emancipation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 96th Annual Convention, TBA, Richmond, VA, Oct 04, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p521556_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In 1913, African Americans celebrated the fiftieth year anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. In respond to the celebration, the AME church asked Bishop Henry McNeal Turner to write a reflection on the meaning of the Emancipation. However, the selection of Turner was not without problems. At this time, Turner's persona had shifted from one filled with optimism after the signing of the Emancipation and Civil War to one who believed that American did not hold any promises for African Americans. Asking Turner to reflect on the Emancipation could have caused embarrassment for the church and its leaders. However, there was not a need for embarrassment because Turner offered a eloquent reflection and placed the signing of the Emacipation in its proper historic context.

In this essay, I offer a close reading of Turner's Reminiscences of the Emancipation. I argue that while Turner was a pessimistic prophet in his later years, his reflection on the Emancipation reminded his audiences of what American could had became.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Words: 33 words || 
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5. Weber, Heloise. "“Development as Emancipation” and Struggles in the Idiom of Justice" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p311128_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines struggles over development through an engagement with competing conceptions of emancipation and their underlying epistemological premises. I adopt this approach to illustrate the extent to which “routinized” conceptions of development

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