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2006 - Western Political Science Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 5891 words || 
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1. Rinfret, Sara. "Global Warming Emissions and State Policies: What is Driving State Emissions Levels and Will State Policies Impact Future Emissions Reductions?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Albuquerque, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Mar 17, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p97299_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the U.S., individual State Action Plans are being implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that lead to global warming. This paper uses Linear Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions to determine the contributing factors of state emissions, using data from 1990-2000 in all fifty states. The results show that over 90 percent of state emissions factors are attributable to fossil fuel consumption variables (coal, natural gas, and petroleum). However, when regressions are run in the absence of the consumption variables, the results show that transportation, population, income and state policies play a role in affecting state emissions levels. Overall, the findings indicate that decision-makers need to adopt policies to control consumption of fossil fuels and implement mass public transit to account for growing commute times that increase greenhouse gas levels.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 26 pages || Words: 9541 words || 
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2. Pamukcu, Konuralp. "The European Emissions Trading Scheme: A Model for a Global Emissions Trading System?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p179272_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) became reality on 1 January 2005 with around USD 50 billion worth of carbon allowances allocated annually across the 25 EU member countries covering some 13,000 installations and up to 4,000 companies. The EU ETS was designed to help the EU meet its Kyoto Protocol target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 8% below its 1990 level until 2012. This article aims to answer whether the EU ETS would be a model for a global emissions trading scheme in the fight against climate change. By offereing a detailed SWOTT analysis, this article first delves into strengths and weaknesses of the EU ETS and later offers an evaluation of to what extent it provides a road map for a global emissions trading system that would be a major part of a truly global cooperation in combating this global problem.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 168 words || 
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3. Winter, Gerd. "Comparing Emissions Trading and Emissions Regulation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p176893_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper will compare emissions trading as an economic instrument of climate protection with emissions reduction as a conduct-related instrument of preventing acid rain. Taking the EU as a case I will a) describe the multilevel regimes backing the two instruments (“Kyoto” and “Helsinki”), b) clarify in what respect they can be compared, c) analyse their different logics of establishing target quota and directing their instruments, d) demonstrate their relative success in reaching their targets, e) explain why “Helsinki” has proven to be more successful than “Kyoto”,and e) propose improvements of the Kyoto mechanisms based on lessons learned from “Helsinki”. My thesis is this: “Helsinki” operates with a double safety net: Targets are set according to critical loads, and the instrument aims at best available technology. Contrastingly, “Kyoto” has no safety net at all: Targets are set according to political bargaining, and the instrument does not induce additional emission reductions. “Kyoto” could be improved if BAT requirements were built into the allocation, trading and generation of emission rights.

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