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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Bergmann, Sarah., Wendt, Verena., von Klitzing, Kai. and Klein, Annette. "Do Aspects of Parental Emotion Recognition and Parent-Child Emotional Availability predict Child Emotion Comprehension?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960084_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Attachment research suggests that the development of the child’s emotion comprehension is influenced by the quality of the mother-child relationship (e.g. Laible & Thompson, 1998; Ontai & Ross, 2002). So far unexplored is the relationship between parent-child Emotional Availability (EA) and later child emotion comprehension. EA characterizes the overall quality of the emotional connection between two persons (parent and child) and integrates aspects of attachment theory and systemic theory (Biringen, 2000). Further unexplored is the influence of aspects of parental emotion recognition on later child emotion comprehension. This study aims to prospectively explore the associations between aspects of parental emotion recognition, parent-child EA and children’s emotion comprehension. At T1, the sample consists of N=46 children (24 girls) aged 21.49 to 47.34 months (Mchild age = 35.55, SDchild age = 6.76) and their mothers and fathers. We videotaped mother-child and father-child interactions separately in a free-play situation (16 min) and coded the videos with the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). To assess aspects of parental emotion recognition we used the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS; Kupfer et al., 2001), the subscales C and G for understanding emotions of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Steinmayer et al., 2011) and an experimental task for decoding facial expressions of emotions. 11 months later (T2), we tested children’s emotion comprehension with the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC; Janke, 2006) and assessed child language comprehension as a control variable. As can be seen in Figure 1, the majority of children in our sample solved two or three of the nine TEC tasks. By multiple regression (stepwise backwards) we investigated predictors of child emotion comprehension (Table 1) including aspects of parental emotion recognition, mother-child EA, father-child EA and control variables (child sex, child age, child language comprehension). These variables explained 41% of the variance with child age, child sex and maternal facial emotion recognition as significant predictors and a trend for paternal facial emotion recognition. The higher the parental capacity of correctly recognizing facial expressions of emotions, the better was the children’s TEC score. Older children and boys scored higher than younger children and girls. Neither mother-child EA nor father-child EA significantly predicted child emotion comprehension. These findings suggest that among aspects of emotion recognition, parental recognition of facial emotions is significantly connected with child emotion comprehension. Especially, the mothers’ capacity of facial emotion recognition seems to play an important role. This is in line with the fact, that children as young as in our sample mainly solve component 1 of the TEC (recognition of facial expressions of basic emotions). However, EA did not significantly predict later child emotion comprehension. A former study on attachment (Ontai & Thompson, 2002) suggests that benefits regarding children’s emotion comprehension appear later in children’s life.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Ross, Emily., Rystad, Ida., Lin, Betty., Crnic, Keith., Luecken, Linda. and Gonzales, Nancy. "Maternal Emotion Socialization and Infant Emotion Expression across Time: Differentiating by Emotion Valence and Task Type" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p958180_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Background: Although developmental research has examined emotion expression over time (Charles, Reynolds, & Gatz, 2001), there has been less focus on the first six months of life (Bridgett, Laake, Gartstein, & Dorn, 2013; Sroufe, 1996). As early as three weeks of age, infants express distinguishable positive and negative emotion (Camras, et al., 1988). Over time, emotion expression develops in distinct ways depending on a variety of factors including maturation and parenting behaviors. However, the specific developmental points at which parenting influences emotion expression in young children remain to be clarified (Eisenberg, Cumberland, & Spinrad, 1998). In addition, the relations between parenting and infant emotion may differ as a function of context and situational demand (Ginsburg et al., 2010).

The current study examined relations between early maternal emotion socialization behavior and later infant emotion expression across structured and unstructured contexts. Maternal emotion socialization was expected to predict infant positive emotion expression across time, but infant negative emotion would be less influenced by maternal socialization. Additionally, we hypothesized that the structured task, given its more stressful demands, would intensify the predicted relations.


Method: The present study included 322 Mexican-American mothers and their infants. Data were collected longitudinally at 12-, 18-, and 24-weeks of infant age, and involved two mother-infant interactions tasks observed during home visits. In the structured task, mothers were instructed to have their child complete a task that was developmentally advanced. In the unstructured task, mothers were instructed to play with their infants as they normally would. Maternal emotion socialization, measured at 12-weeks, was represented by a composite of five codes from the Coding Interactive Behaviors rating system (CIB; Feldman, 1998). Codes captured maternal behavior that encourages appropriate and effective emotion expression in the infant. Infant emotion expression was measured as the proportion of time the infant spent in mutually exclusive negative or positive states.


Results: Correlational analyses indicated that greater maternal emotion socialization at 12 weeks predicted lower infant negative emotion expression at 24 weeks during the structured teaching task only (r = -.354, p<.05). Infant negativity was not influenced by maternal socialization during the unstructured task across all time points. Higher maternal emotion socialization correlated with higher infant positive emotion expression at 12 weeks for both the structured (r = .194, p<.05) and unstructured task (r = .355, p<.01). In addition, higher maternal emotion socialization during the unstructured task predicted higher positivity at 18 weeks (r = .301, p<.044).


Discussion: Differences appear to exist in the development of positive versus negative infant emotion expression as a function of early parenting behaviors. Parenting may particularly influence infant positive emotion early during early developmental periods, whereas those same parenting behaviors influence more negative emotion later. However, situation-specific relations suggest that contextual demand might influence the predictability of maternal behaviors to infant emotion. The current study suggests some complexity in the prediction of infant positive and negative emotional processes across the first six months of life, a developmental period especially salient for emerging parent-child relationships.

2011 - Seventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 147 words || 
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3. Roberts, Kary. and Nichols, Sharon. "Teachers’ Emotional Labor, Emotional Expression, and Emotional Control" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Seventh International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champain Illini Union, Urbana, IL, May 17, 2011 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p495332_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Few professions entail the levels of emotional stress often carried by teachers, however little research has explored the emotional dimensions of being a teacher. The purpose of this study was to explore 1) situations that influence the personal emotions of the teacher, and (2) teachers beliefs about the role of personal emotions in the classroom. The study design featured grounded theory research methodology underpinning case studies of three veteran teachers from a school in a “Deep South”. In this presentation, several insights derived from the study will be re-presented as narratives featuring key insights, for example: Teachers’ Emotions-- innate but controllable; Emotional connections with students--keys to teacher success or failure; Without an emotional connect, a teacher will not work as hard to meet the students’ needs. This study may be useful to teacher recruitment and retention efforts, and design of professional development addressing teachers emotional needs.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7928 words || 
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4. Brown, Kenly. and Gonzales, Daisy. "Emotional Specialist or Emotional Wrecks? Emotional Labor in Police Civilian-interactions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p722464_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using Hochschild’s analysis of service providers’ emotional labor, this article identifies the interactional skills required for emotional labor to be performed in police work. Through a close analysis of police-civilian encounters (using the methods outlined in Heritage and Clayman, 2010), we examine four cases drawn from a larger database of encounters collected in a major city in California. These cases materialize routine mechanics through which police officers practice emotional labor in everyday interactions with civilians, and the range of outcomes these practices promote. We show how de-escalation and empathetic techniques lead to compliant and comforted civilians. Additionally, verbal irony and neutrality are observed as problematic uses of emotional labor that result in angry and frustrated civilians. This article provides a visual dataset and conversation analytical perspective of police officers practicing emotional labor in their interactions with civilians.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Tan, Lin. and Smith, Cynthia. "Maternal Emotion Expressivity as a Mediator of the Relation of Maternal Emotion Regulation to Child Emotion Regulation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p958118_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research on the socialization of child emotion regulation often involves measures of general parenting (e.g., parenting style, sensitiveness, warmth) without considering direct effects of maternal emotions and regulation. Optimal maternal regulation may be expected to directly relate to better child regulation, but Morris, Silk, Steinberg, Myers, and Robinson (2007) have proposed that parents’ emotion expressivity may be the means through which parents transmit their emotion regulation (ER) strategies to children. Maternal report of their own positive emotions has been associated with better child regulation, whereas maternal report of negative emotions has been related to lower child regulation (Cumberland-Li et al., 2003; Ramsden & Hubbard, 2002). While past research has supported the connection between maternal expressivity and child regulation, mothers’ ability to regulate emotions likely plays a role in their emotional expressivity. To examine these issues, we tested a longitudinal mediated model where maternal ER was hypothesized to predict maternal emotion expressivity, which would in turn predict child ER (see Figure 1). It is expected that mothers who use more reappraisal would have higher expression of positive emotions and that mothers who were more positive would have children would have higher regulation scores, measured four years later.

Participants at time 1 (T1) included 116 mothers and their preschool-aged children. To measure maternal ER, mothers completed the reappraisal subscale of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ, Gross & John, 2003). The short form of the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ; Halberstadt, Cassidy, Stifter, Parke & Fox, 1995) was used to assess their positive emotion expressivity. Mothers’ positive and negative affect was observed during a 6 min free-play and coded on a 4-point scale. Observed negative was subtracted from observed positive, and this score was significantly correlated with the SEFQ positive scale, r(114) = .20, p < .05. Both scores were combined to create a positivity expressivity summary score. At time 2 (T2), mothers (n = 109) and teachers (n = 98) reported on children’s emotion regulation using the activation control, attention focusing, and inhibitory control subscales from the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ, Simonds & Rothbart, 2005). Maternal and teacher report were significantly correlated, r(90) = .54, p < .001, and combined to create a summary score of child regulation.

No direct effect from maternal reappraisal to child regulation was found (see Figure 2). Mediation analyses based on 5000 bootstrapped samples using bias-corrected and accelerated 95% confidence intervals (Preacher & Hayes, 2004) showed that reappraisal had a significant indirect effect on child emotion regulation via maternal positive expressivity (B = .037, bias-corrected 95% confidence intervals [.005, .085], p < .05).

The study findings suggest that maternal positive expressivity may be a mechanism through which maternal use of reappraisal has an effect on child ER. Reappraisal is viewed as an adaptive ER strategy because mothers who use this strategy are more likely to experience and express positive emotions compared to negative emotions. The positive emotional climate created by mothers may allow children to learn to better regulate their own emotions.

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