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2006 - International Communication Association Pages: 8 pages || Words: 1897 words || 
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1. Kalyanaraman, Sriram. and Ivory, James. "The Face of Online Information Processing: Effects of Emoticons on Impression Formation, Affect, and Cognition in Chat Transcripts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany, Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p93286_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Abstract: The multiplicity of venues that the Internet offers for social interaction has led to a sustained body of research in computer-mediated communication (CMC), with a prominent body of scholarship examining the efficacy of distinct non-verbal cues that can help CMC approximate the feel of face-to-face (FtF) communication. One such cue that enjoys ubiquitous use in several online communication environments is the emoticon. Despite their prominent presence, however, little experimental research has examined the psychological effects of emoticons in popular online scenarios. We examine the interplay of emoticons with the gender of the person using them and also explore whether the type of topic under consideration makes a difference. We report results from a fully crossed, 2 (emoticons present, emoticons absent) X 2 (male, female) X 2 (serious topic, non-serious topic) between-subjects factorial experiment (N = 120) and show that the experimental manipulations have an influence on impression-formation, affect, and cognition. The findings have theoretical implications for CMC research and offer a promising direction for future inquiry.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 8442 words || 
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2. Dindia, Kathryn. and Huber, Jennifer. "The Influence of Emoticons on Message Interpretation in Instant Messages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, Nov 11, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p319888_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend the Walther and D’Addario (2001) study that examined the effects of emoticons on message interpretation in email messages. This study examined the effect of emoticons on message interpretation in instant messages replacing text emoticons [smile :-), frown :-(, and wink :-] with graphic emoticons (yellow smiley face , frown , and wink ). Results are reported and compared to results of Walther and D’Addario.

2005 - International Communication Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 4524 words || 
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3. Antonijevic, Smiljana. "Expressing Emotions Online: An Analysis of Visual Aspects of Emoticons" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p14175_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper presents a research on emoticons, visual representations of facial expressions used in computer-mediated communication as a substitute for nonverbal cues. The concept of critical visual methodology and a theoretical framework of visual semiotics were used to examine the way in which facial expressions and emotions were coded and visually represented, analyzing the design features of emoticons such as shape, color, and context.

The analysis has shown that emoticons represented human face in a highly abstract way – as genderless, raceless, and ageless circular graphs - to display seven types of emotions, known as “basic emotions.” These are: happy, sad, shocked, disappointed, anxious, positive, and in love. Each type of emoticons required a different combination of textual and contextual devices to create a meaning. The easiest to code were happiness, sadness, and a state of shock, while representations of anxiousness and disappointment required a highly contextualized background and textual clarifications. All of the analyzed emoticons demonstrated the challenge to visually code communicative richness of the human face.

The interpretation of these findings addressed the analyzed emoticons with regard to the complexity of the human face as found in anthropology and psychobiology. The interpretation suggests that the creators of emoticons must rely on logical signs instead of drawing on the expressive signs that represent emotion in humans. As a result, emoticons hold a very limited ability to function as a substitute for nonverbal cues, and show a heavy reliance on context, metaphor, and visual language of the contemporary Western society.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 24 pages || Words: 5878 words || 
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4. McCalman, Allyn. "If You Give a Researcher an Emoticon, She'll Probably Want the Real Thing: UnCONVENTIONal Findings of Nonverbal Communication Online" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p256263_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper broadens the definition of nonverbal communication to include unCONVENTINONal cues in online contexts. Accordingly, 250 online message board messages were collected and coded according to type of nonverbal cue used (facial expression emoticon, onomatopoeia, acronym) and for the placement of the nonverbal cues in the message. Only 52% of messages coded included any nonverbal cue. When nonverbals were used, participants primarily inserted facial expression and onomatopoeia cues, placing them after the relevant text.

2015 - AAAL Annual Conference Words: 50 words || 
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5. Ruiz Tada, Marina. and Vasylets, Olena. "Pragmatic Functions of Emoticons on Twitter: Japanese and English Usages in Computer Mediated Communication" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAAL Annual Conference, Fairmont Royal York, Toronto, ON, Canada, Mar 21, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p963419_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Recent CMC research has examined the pragmatic functions of emoticons interpreted as contextualization cues. Our study examines emoticons on Twitter used by Japanese users compared to English users in the United States. We coded the tweets in light of discourse analytic perspectives of speech act theory and politeness theory.

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