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2012 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 6464 words || 
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1. Holmstrom, Amanda., Russell, Jessica. and Clare, David. "Esteem Support Messages and the Job Search: An Application of a Cognitive-Emotional Theory of Esteem Support Messages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton Phoenix Downtown, Phoenix, AZ, May 24, 2012 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p555078_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Unemployment and the job search process can be threatening to one’s identity and self-esteem. Research suggests that the receipt of esteem support may buffer the negative effects of esteem threats on self-esteem. Esteem support is a form of emotional support that is provided to enhance how someone feels about himself/herself and his or her attributes, abilities, and accomplishments. The current study assesses the merit of a theory of esteem support messages (the Cognitive-Emotional Theory of Esteem Support Messages, or CETESM) in the context of job loss. Unemployed, underemployed, and/or displaced workers (N = 292) rated esteem support messages varying in quality for their potential effects on state self-esteem and job search intentions. Results indicate that theoretically sophisticated messages were rated as better than less sophisticated messages, consistent with the CETESM. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the theory and for providing esteem support to job seekers.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Parady, Valerie. and Corwyn, Robert. "Does a mother’s self-esteem predict her child’s self-esteem?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962408_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A new question that researchers are starting to ask is how certain positive emotions are transferred between generations. It is noted, however, that little research has been conducted in order to investigate the influence that parents have on their children’s self-esteem (Hoy, Suldo, Mendez, 2012). Potentially positive emotions like self-esteem have been a subject of intense research for decades, but the intergenerational transmission of self-esteem has rarely been a research topic. The only study found that looked at this question (Donnelly, Renk, Sims, Mcguire, 2010) investigated the influence of mothers’ self-esteem on the self-esteem of their college-aged children. The study found that mothers’ self-esteem predicted her child’s self-esteem. However, this data was collected from only one university. In our study we were able to look at a larger, more representative sample.
Extraneous variables controlled for included marital status which has been linked to levels of self-esteem (Baldwin, Hoffmann, 2002: Baker, Ben-Ami, 2011). Stressful life events such as divorce can affect a child’s stress level as well. These stressful life events can also affect their levels of depression (Baker, Ebn-Ami, 2011: Hayes, Harris, Carver, 2004), which is also linked to self-esteem (Hayes, Harris, Carver, 2004). Researchers have also concluded that family income and government assistance effected the child’s self-esteem (Wiltfang, Scarbecz, 1990). We were able to look at each of the variables and conclude that mothers’ self-esteem, depression and marital status where all significant predictors a child’s self-esteem.
Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY). We merged data from the Mothers (NLSY 79) and of their children (NLSY79 Child/Young Adult). A sample of 829 mothers (22.1% Hispanic, 26.2% Black, and 51.7% Non-Hispanic and non-blacks) were given the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale in 2006 and their adolescent children were also given the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 2006.
After controlling for net family income, maternal depression (CESD), and marital status (single, living with a partner) we found that the mother’s self-esteem was a significant predictor of the child’s self-esteem. Marital status was a significant predictor of adolescent self-esteem as well. Net family income and maternal depression did not have an independent effect on adolescent self-esteem.
This study and the study by Donnelly and colleagues (2010), suggest that the self-esteem of mothers can have an important influence on the self-esteem of their children. It would be especially informative to investigate the pathways in which maternal self-esteem has an influence on child self-esteem (i.e. mediators) as well as potential moderators of this relationship.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Fassnacht, Gregory., Osofsky, Joy., Osofsky, Howard. and Weems, Carl. "Self Esteem, Disaster Exposure, and Psychological Symptoms among Disaster-Exposed Youth: Does Self Esteem act as a Buffer?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p956569_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research has demonstrated that disaster exposure can negatively affect youth health and mental health (e.g., Hansel, Osofsky, Osofsky, & Friedrich, 2013). However, there is considerable variation in the levels of psychological distress, including symptoms of PTSD, that are experienced among disaster exposed youth (e.g., Masten, & Osofsky, 2010). One factor that may predict variation in the effects of exposure is self-esteem. This poster presentation will provide data testing a theoretical model which predicts that self-esteem may buffer individuals against some of the negative effects of exposure to disaster, but that the buffering effect may vary by developmental level or gender of the youth. We predicted that self-esteem levels moderate the relationship between natural disaster exposures (hurricane and oil) and post traumatic symptoms (PTS).
To test the hypothesis, a sample of 5,055 children and adolescents in grades 4-12 living a region affected by Hurricane Katrina, the Gulf Oil Spill and other intervening hurricanes were assessed. Students were evaluated for PTSD symptoms, hurricane exposure, ongoing life-stressors and self-esteem using well validated measures. Youth were aged 7-18 years (M age = 13.38 years) with 52% reporting female gender, 47% male, and 1% with unreported gender. Youth reported their ethnicities as 58% white, 19% African American, 10% mixed, 5% Hispanic, 3% American Indian, 2% Asian, 2% other, and 1% unreported.

Regression analyses were conducted in order to test the hypotheses that self-esteem levels moderate the relationship between natural disaster exposures (hurricane and oil) and post traumatic symptoms (PTS). PTS was entered as the dependent variable, and hurricane exposure with self-esteem were entered as predictors, with the variables age, ethnicity, gender, and oil exposure entered as covariates. In Table 1, results indicate that self-esteem interacts with hurricane exposure as indicted by the significant interaction term. In addition, post-hoc probing of the interaction at high and low levels of self-esteem (see Holmbeck, 2002), indicates that while exposure is predictive of PTS symptoms across all levels of self-esteem, among those with low self-esteem hurricane exposure has a stronger effect on PTS levels (slope = 6.71), than among those with higher levels of self-esteem (slope= 3.48). Results from Table 2 indicate that self-esteem also interacted with oil exposure in the prediction of PTS symptoms as indicated by the significant interaction term. In addition, post-hoc probing of the interaction at high and low levels of self-esteem indicates that while exposure is predictive of PTS symptoms across all levels of self-esteem, among those with low self-esteem oil exposure has a stronger effect on PTS levels (slope = 6.73), than among those with higher levels of self-esteem (slope= 3.68).
The results of this study provide data showing that self-esteem may buffer the effects of disaster exposure on youth. Additional analyses to be presented at the meeting will test if findings vary by age of the child and gender.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Harris, Michelle., Trzesniewski, Kali. and Donnellan, M.. "Assessing Global Self-Esteem across the Life span: Introducing the Life Span Self-Esteem Scale" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960322_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Copious amounts of past research point to global self-esteem as important for concurrent and long term mental and physical health. While longitudinal studies on self-esteem have increased in the recent years, the conclusions that can be made about self-esteem over time are limited because existing global self-esteem scales vary the items across developmental periods (e.g., Self-Perception Profile for Children, SPPC, or Adolescents; Harter, 1985; 1988) or are only validated for certain ages (e.g., Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; RSE for use with adolescent and adult samples). In addition, global self-esteem scales are not available for children younger than eight, despite the likelihood that self-esteem begins to develop earlier in life (but, see March, Craven, & Debus, 1991). These limitations in self-esteem measurement have held back research on the development of self-esteem across the life span. A single scale validated for a wide-range of individuals is needed to help research on the development of self-esteem move forward.
Method. Recruitment was targeted to 11 age-stratified subsamples with 103 to 254 participants in each of the following age groups: 5-7, 8-13, 14-17, 18-24, 25-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89. Children ages 5 to 13 completed surveys in their school classroom with the facilitation of trained research assistants. Participants ages 14 to 89 completed surveys online. Six items for the LSE were adapted from the SPPC (Harter, 1985), and four new items were created to result in a total of 10 items (see Table 1). Participants of all ages responded using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (really sad) to 5 (really happy), which were illustrated with smiley faces. Cronbach’s alphas were acceptable at all ages (> .84 for each age group). To validate the scale, correlates of self-esteem were measured by target gender, target-reported attachment security and the Single-Item Self-Esteem Scale (SISE; Robins, Hendin, & Trzesniewski, 2001) at all ages. In addition, three well-established self-esteem measures (e.g., RSE), personality, depression, and narcissism were assessed across adulthood.
Results. The total LSE score was computed by taking the average of the 10 items. We replicated past literature that shows self-esteem is high in childhood, drops in adolescence, and rises and becomes stable in adulthood. However, we did not find a striking decline in old age, as has been found in past research. Across the sample, LSE was not correlated with gender, but was strongly related to the three well-established self-esteem measures. The LSE was also related to attachment security and SISE, and this relation was not moderated by age (see Table 2). Table 2 also shows consistent correlations across adult subsamples with personality traits, depression, and narcissistic admiration. Overall, there is strong evidence for internal consistency, convergent validity, and divergent validity of the LSE across the life span. Findings also show that young children can reliably and validly self-report their global self-esteem.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 9808 words || 
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5. Holmstrom, Amanda. "Interpersonal Esteem Enhancement: The Influence of Attachment on Perceptions of Esteem Support Messages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Nov 13, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p419435_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research indicates that self-esteem may be restored through the reception of esteem support. The influence of attachment dimensions and situational factors (type of esteem threat, target responsibility, and problem severity) on ratings of the helpfulness of esteem support messages were examined in this survey of 506 participants. Individual differences in attachment directly influenced and interacted with situational factors to influence ratings of esteem support message helpfulness, particularly for more sophisticated esteem support messages.

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