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2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Words: 34 words || 
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1. Chong, Chinbo. "Do Ethnic and Pan-Ethnic Appeals Activate Political Participation? An Investigation of the Persuasiveness of Ethnic and Pan-Ethnic Appeals on Asian and Latino Electorates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1343286_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper has implications for political representation and mobilization of Asians/Latinos who are frequently referred to by their pan-ethnicities. Understanding when these appeals are the most effective can assist elites to better represent them.

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Pages: 35 pages || Words: 11444 words || 
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2. Kendhammer, Brandon. "Talking Ethnic but Hearing Multi-Ethnic: The Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP) in Nigeria and Durable Multi-Ethnic Parties in the Midst of Ethnic Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 02, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p361239_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The effect of ethnicity on party politics in (1999-present) Nigeria has been paradoxical. Despite ethno-religious violence over Islamic law and an insurgency among minorities in the oil-producing regions, the ruling Peoples’ Democratic Party (PDP) formed a super-majority multiethnic coalition that has survived despite the scale of ethnic conflict. Chandra (2004) notes competitive intraparty advancement is a prerequisite for the success of ethnic parties. In unequal multiethnic coalitions, it is difficult to guarantee minority ethnic members a chance to advance within the party, when candidates depend on ethnic appeals for support at home that may escalate ethnic tensions. The PDP’s rotational system guarantees intraparty advancement of ethnic minorities without sacrificing members’ ability to campaign ethnically at home. Examining the 2008, 2007, and 2003 elections, I show how local PDP campaign strategies rally ethno-religious support but provide cues to minorities that ethnic “talk” by their rivals within the party does not violate the multi-ethnic deal. This redirects the literature on ethnic parties, which has focused on how parties are built on “nested” ethnic identities, but has ignored the dynamics of multi-ethnic parties.

2015 - Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology Words: 247 words || 
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3. Reddy, Geetha., Gleibs, Ilka. and Howarth, Caroline. "The influence of government level ethnic categorisation on the negotiation of ethnic identity among mixed ethnicity Malaysians and Singaporeans" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Omni San Diego Hotel, San Diego, CA, Jul 03, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1013812_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Given the prominence of race in the case of Singapore and Malaysia ethnicity and race are significant categories for Singaporeans and Malaysians, particularly for ‘mixed’ ethnicity individuals. Possessing ethnic identities that have different practices and cultural meanings could lead to identity conflict, which occurs when a person encounters difficulty in reconciling different components of identity that prescribe behaviours, thoughts and feelings which are incompatible with each other. In this qualitative study, 31 in depth interviews were carried out among mixed ethnicity Singaporeans and Malaysians. Thematic analysis was employed in identifying key issues surrounding ethnic and national identities. While participants had little or no internal conflict in managing the 2 (or more) different ethnic identities, inconsistencies between how society defines mixed ethnicity individuals and how they define themselves were some of the distinctive struggles in managing their different ethnicities. This paper shows that the political ethnic categorisation and race based policies employed by the Malaysian and Singapore government, as well as interactions with non-mixed ethnicity Malaysians and Singaporeans in these two countries influenced the ethnic identity formation and negotiation of the mixed ethnicity individuals. Mixed ethnicity individuals preferred identifying themselves with their nationalities instead of their ethnicities even though this was problematic within the national contexts given that citizens identify themselves with their (single) ethnicities first i.e. Chinese Singaporean. This presents important challenges for intergroup relations between mixed ethnicity and non- mixed ethnicity individuals and how the two countries develop constructive forms of national engagement and civic participation.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 8991 words || 
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4. Oh, Sookhee. "Ethnic Enclaves, Ethnic Communities, and Ethnic Linkages: Urban and Suburban Koreans in New York" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1008067_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the changing demographic and sociospatial aspects of ethnic enclaves focusing on urban and suburban Koreans in the New York metropolitan area. Traditionally, urban ethnic enclaves have been understood as temporary way stations for newly arrived poor immigrants facing cultural and language barriers. However, in the current era of globalization and migration, due to the forces created by the increasing influx of affluent immigrant populations and transnational capital from booming Asian economies, ethnic enclaves have evolved into ethnic communities, often established in suburban areas, transcending their traditional function. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this paper explains the demographic and spatial factors that have created divergent patterns of ethnic concentration in a changing metropolitan context. Second, this paper evaluates the adequacy of the traditional notion of the ethnic enclave as a geographical container of ethnic linkages and as a hindrance to immigrant assimilation and suburbanization by offering the conceptual and empirical clarity of ethnic enclaves and ethnic communities in post-industrial and global cities. This paper relies on various sources of both quantitative and qualitative data such as aggregated and micro Census data of 2000 and 2010 and fieldwork data. This paper will enhance our understanding of the changing character of ethnic enclaves and challenge the traditional notion of spatial assimilation by reflecting on the impact of a globalized economy and the simultaneous occurrence of ethnic concentration and dispersion.

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