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2010 - ISPP 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 5171 words || 
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1. McFarland, Sam. "Predicting the ethnocentric valuation of human life: Identification with all humanity, ethnocentrism, and other correlates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting, Mark Hopkins Hotel, San Francisco, California, USA, Jul 07, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p418445_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Pratto and Glasford (2008) presented a subtle measure of the “ethnocentric valuation of human life,” the tendency to value the lives of ingroup members (e.g., Americans) more than those of outgroup members (e.g, Afghanis). Across several studies, the social dominance orientation predicted greater ethnocentric valuation of human life, whereas dispositional empathy predicted valuing ingroup and outgroup lives equally. Authoritarianism did not enhance the ethnocentric valuation of life.

To extend these findings, a new measure of Identification with All Humanity (i.e., a positive caring for all humanity; IWAH; McFarland, 2010), Altemeyer’s (1998) measure of ethnocentrism, and Rest et al.’s (1999) measure of principled moral reasoning were administered, along with Pratto and Glasford’s measures, to a sample of 102 adults.

Drawing on earlier results (e.g., McFarland, in press a; in press b), a structural model was proposed: The effects of authoritarianism, social dominance, empathy, and moral reasoning upon the ethnocentric valuation of life should be mediated through ethnocentrism and identification with all humanity.

While Pratto and Glasford’s (2008) correlations were replicated, the data fit the hypothesized model very well: Only ethnocentrism directly enhanced the ethnocentric valuation of human lives, whereas only identification with all humanity directly reduced it, and it did so strongly. The effects of the other correlates were fully mediated through these two.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 10175 words || 
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2. Collaco, Christine. "The Importance of Intercultural Willingness-to-Communicate in Reducing Ethnocentrism and Intended Behaviors Associated with Ethnocentrism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p488569_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence, social intelligence, and intercultural willingness-to-communicate with ethnocentrism and intended behaviors associated with ethnocentrism. Data collected from a group-administered survey of 497 undergraduates at a small private university and junior college in the western United States was used to test two proposed communication models. The results indicated that both emotional and social intelligence were strongly associated with ethnocentrism and intended behavior associated with ethnocentrism. More significant, however, is intercultural willingness-to-communicate relationship and predictability towards reducing ethnocentrism and intended behaviors associated with ethnocentrism.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 28 pages || Words: 7279 words || 
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3. Aslan, Kursad. and Sezgin, Erkan. "Ethnocentrism, Universalism and Turkey's Membership to the European Union" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-11-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p100653_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Turkey’s first attempt to access European Community, which is predecessor of EU, goes back to 1959. Despite of intensive Turkish efforts, European side had persistently denied Turkey’s access until recently. In this long journey, Turkey was never turned down directly. EU has maintained that Turkey has to carry out massive political and economic reforms before entry could even be considered. Finally, thanks to astonishing reforms performed by Turkish governments since 2001, EU, at December 17, 2004, announced that it will start official negotiations with Turkey within one year. In order to get this date the Turkish government has had to make many changes in its institutions and legislations. Between 2002 and 2004, there were nine EU engaged “Harmonization Packages”, which included several alterations in a number of institutions, that adopted by the Turkish Parliament. In this paper, our main concern is whether these rapid harmonization reforms have been digested by the Turkish public. We will try to answer this question within the social science metaphor of the universalism-ethnocentrism continuum. And finally, we will conclude on the major policy implications for particularly the Turkish-EU access process; and the vigorous construction of the European integration course and institutionalization.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 5504 words || 
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4. Butcher, Margaret Miller. and Haggard, Carrol. "Ethnocentrism and Intercultural Willingness to Communicate: A Cross-cultural Comparison between Chinese and US College Students" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, Nov 11, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p368397_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examines the level of ethnocentrism and IWTC in 326 students in China and 203 students in the United States. Results indicate that Chinese students are less ethnocentric that students from the US, however, in terms of IWTC, the US sample is significantly more willing to communicate interculturally. Implications of the results are discussed.

2010 - ISPP 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 231 words || 
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5. Bizumic, Boris., Smithson, Michael. and Van Rooy, Dirk. "Reconceptualized Ethnocentrism and Its Consequences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting, Mark Hopkins Hotel, San Francisco, California, USA, Jul 07, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-11-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p419832_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Two studies were conducted to further test the conceptual distinctiveness of ethnocentrism, reconceptualized as ethnic group self-centredness (Bizumic et al., 2009), and the impact of ethnocentrism on group and intergroup behaviours (behaviour in imaginary scenarios, past behaviour and behaviour in social dilemmas). Study 1 (N = 168) supported the hierarchical structure of ethnocentrism in Australia and showed that ethnocentrism was conceptually distinct from explicit outgroup negativity, explicit ingroup positivity and the association of implicit outgroup negativity and implicit ingroup positivity (as measured by the Implicit Association Test). Ordinal logistic and poisson regression analyses in this study showed that ethnocentrism, outgroup negativity and ingroup positivity predicted different kinds of behaviours. In Study 2, participants (N = 202) were confronted with two three-person (participant, ethnic ingroup and ethnic outgroup) social dilemmas with a prisoner’s dilemma structure. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that ethnocentric individuals were more likely to defect than to cooperate, but there was also evidence that these effects might have been due to the association of ethnocentrism with individual narcissism. Ethnocentric individuals were more likely to note that the reason behind their behaviour in social dilemmas was to achieve a better outcome than the ethnic outgroup. These studies further support the conceptual distinctiveness of ethnocentrism, conceptualized as ethnic group self-centredness, and show its usefulness for predicting different group and intergroup behaviours over and above outgroup negativity, ingroup positivity and implicit attitudes.

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