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2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 9707 words || 
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1. Knight, Sarah. "When Exchange Rates Become Political: The Evolving Relationship Between Exchange Rates and Firm Competitiveness" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p40591_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A strong dollar inspired widespread political mobilization among disadvantaged labor and industry groups in the mid-1980s, but these same groups remained relatively silent when the dollar appreciated sharply again in the late 1990s. The literature on the domestic politics of exchange rates is ill-equipped to explain this variation in political activity, as it tends to conceive of interest group mobilization on exchange rates as an either/or proposition. One group of scholars sees interest groups as intimately involved in exchange rate policymaking, whereas another group emphasizes the collective action problems interest groups face in mobilizing on exchange rates. The conditions leading to interest group mobilization on exchange rates are varied, but the factor that has the most traction in explaining this particular puzzle is the recent proliferation of financial instruments designed to help a firm hedge its foreign exchange risk. Financial hedging dampens the distributional impact of exchange rates, which explains why many firms did not invest the resources necessary to mobilize against the strong dollar in the 1990s as they did in the 1980s. This hypothesis is tested empirically by looking at how the relationship between the value of the dollar and US exports has changed over time. The findings provide preliminary support that exchange rates are less of a driver of firm competitiveness than in decades past. Further work remains to ascertain the robustness of these findings and to confirm through firm interviews the changing intensity of preferences on exchange rates.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 36 pages || Words: 13841 words || 
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2. Walter, Stefanie. "Exchange Rates and the Private Sector. How Interest Group Vulnerabilities Influence Exchange Rate Policy Choices" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178755_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Exchange rate policy preferences do not just originate in the effects of exchange rate policy but are intricately linked to monetary policy as well. Based on the trade-off between exchange rate and interest rate stability, this paper develops predictions about which socioeconomic groups are likely to prefer a depreciation, and which groups prefer that the present exchange rate level be maintained. It develops a new approach that considers private sector vulnerabilities to exchange rate and interest rate changes, as well as the implications for interest groups’ competitiveness and their balance sheets. It argues that in periods of exchange rate tranquility, exchange rate policy is purely framed in terms of depreciation or appreciation effects. Only when pressure intensifies, they increasingly weigh their vulnerability to interest-rate increases against their depreciation vulnerability. In this case, high interest-rate exposure can result in a re-assessment of a group’s preferred policy response, leading groups that initially preferred exchange rate stability to favor depreciation. Comparative case studies of speculative attacks on the currencies of Hong Kong, Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan support the argument’s empirical implications. The case studies show that policymakers maintained exchange rate stability when the private sector’s vulnerability to depreciation was high. However, when pressure intensified, exchange rates were subsequently depreciated in countries, where interest group vulnerabilities to a monetary tightening exceeded the potential costs of depreciation.

2011 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7470 words || 
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3. Pirkey, Melissa. "Growing Together: Productive Exchange, Group Identity, and Cohesion in a Nested Exchange Environment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, Aug 19, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p507381_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The affect theory of social exchange proposes that productive exchange – exchanges where three or more actors work together to create a single product or event- is the optimal form of exchange for generating person-to-group affective bonds. The theory proposes that with successful exchange comes mild, positive, global feelings. While repeated reciprocal, negotiated, and generalized exchange amongst actors has also been shown to produce affective bonds, these bonds are more likely to form between the individual actors, as person-to-person ties, rather than person-to-group. Less is known, however, about how these forms of exchange interact when they occur within the same exchange network. Theoretically, these forms of exchange are in competition for actors’ attention. Using ethnographic data from a community supported agriculture organization, this study explores how, despite the presence of dyadic exchanges enabled by relationships within the larger productive exchange context, group cohesion and commitment forms. Drawing on recent work on exchange and identity, I suggest that dominance of productive exchange in the organization creates a context that supports the salience of the groups’ collective identity, and that this identity in turn mitigates the potentially negative effects of network induced power imbalance and the exchanges nested within the productive environment which would otherwise draw attention away from the group.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 886 words || 
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4. Geibel, William. "Educational exchange as public diplomacy: Re-conceptualizing the role of education in educational exchange programs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1217733_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Overview

As an activity of public diplomacy (Cull, 2004), educational exchange is based upon an ideal of cultural diplomacy; seeking to promote interactions between individuals and communities while deepening cultural understanding and advancing diplomatic agendas. In recent years, New Public Diplomacy has emerged as an alternative approach to diplomacy that focuses on building two-way, symmetric relationships between participants of public diplomacy and foreign publics (Figure 1, “Output”) (Fitzpatrick, 2007; Izadi, 2016; Lindsay, 1989; Vanc & Fitzpatrick, 2016; Zaharna & Uysal, 2015). In advocating for approaches to public diplomacy that form relationships between individuals, New Public Diplomacy scholarship has both implicitly and explicitly invoked the importance of exchange programs. However, exchange programs as a means of public diplomacy have until now been severely under theorized and critically examined by scholars, resulting in an outstanding lack of integration between international relations and education theory on the subject. The reality is that while the number of exchange programs has increased in recent decades (Bidwell, 2014), the approaches, designs and objectives of these programs have remained generally unchanged. This failure has led to appeals by current public diplomacy scholars for increased and diversified scholarship in an effort to develop more robust and comprehensive theoretical frameworks of public diplomacy (Vanc & Fitzpatrick, 2016). In response, this paper presents a new theoretical framework that utilizes a Freirean lens to 1) conceptualize public diplomacy as a process of education, 2) position education/learning at the center of developing strong relationships, and 3) stress the importance of student preparation prior to exchange experiences (Figure 1, “Input”).



The logic behind most educational exchange programs has long been supported by scholarship, particularly the contact hypothesis, which suggests that when individuals come into contact they can increase understanding and as a result, trust, which is essential for strong relationships, can be established between them (Allport, 1979; Hoffman, 2006). Yet, despite the link between trust and relationship building, public diplomacy is not often discussed in terms of trust (Mogensen, 2015), and even less so in terms of what types of participant preparation may facilitate trust. As such, the majority of educational exchange programs continue to lack adequate attention to preparing students to be effective public diplomats. While the US now has educational exchange programs across all corners of the world, it is time to move beyond contact and reflect critically on how educational exchanges can be improved. It is important and necessary to begin problematizing common approaches to educational exchange and recognizing that the intention of such programs must be reflected in its preparation, design and participants. Drawing upon previous literature in international relations, public relations, and comparative/international education, this paper does problematize the unequal emphasis on exchange (contact) over education (learning) and provides an alternative approach.


Objectives and Significance

Conventional wisdom directing how the US engages in educational exchange has been left relatively unchallenged over the last half century. Such a lack of critical reflection has allowed for colonial and domination forms of interaction, including within exchange programs, to persist, contributing to the skepticism among many countries in regards to US public diplomacy (Izadi, 2016; Kim, 2015). This paper puts forth an alternative theoretical approach to exchange as public diplomacy that can provide guidance to policy makers and practitioners seeking to improve US relations with the world through soft power, rather than military or economic might.
The theoretical framework put forth emphasizes the need to focus on more than putting participants in contact and instead focus on influencing how that contact takes place and how it can be improved. Such an approach is unique in its attempt to incorporate education and international relations theories in order to connect educational exchange programs with the realities of power relations and globalization in the 21st century. As a result of such theoretical integration, this paper advocates for further interdisciplinary scholarship by international and comparative education scholars on the topic of education exchange as public diplomacy. Ultimately, this new framework for educational exchange can provide guidance to foreign policy makers seeking to enhance international relations, exchange administrators seeking to improve the success of their programs, scholars in integrating international relations and education theories, and international educators in conceptualizing and designing programs to better meet the intended outcomes of public diplomacy.

References

Allport, G. W. (1979). The nature of prejudice. Basic books.

Bidwell, A. (2014, November 17). U.S. Falls Short in Studying Abroad. Retrieved September 2, 2016, from http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2014/11/17/how-studying-abroad-has-changed-in-the-last-decade

Cull, N. J. (2008). Public diplomacy: Taxonomies and histories. The annals of the American academy of political and social science, 616(1), 31-54.

Fitzpatrick, K. R. (2007). Advancing the new public diplomacy: A public relations perspective. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 2(3), 187-211.

Hoffman, A. M. (2006). Building trust: Overcoming suspicion in international conflict. Suny Press.

Izadi, F. (2016). US Public Diplomacy: A Theoretical Treatise. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society, 46(1), 13-21.

Kim, J. (2016). Public relations and public diplomacy in cultural and educational exchange programs: A coorientational approach to the Humphrey Program. Public Relations Review, 42(1), 135-145.

Lindsay, B. (1989). Integrating International Education and Public Diplomacy: Creative Partnerships or Ingenious Propaganda?. Comparative Education Review, 33(4), 423-436.

Mogensen, K. (2015). International trust and public diplomacy. International Communication Gazette, 1748048514568764.

Vanc, A. M., & Fitzpatrick, K. R. (2016). Scope and status of public diplomacy research by public relations scholars, 1990–2014. Public Relations Review,42(3), 432-440.

Zaharna, R. S., & Uysal, N. (2016). Going for the jugular in public diplomacy: How adversarial publics using social media are challenging state legitimacy.Public Relations Review, 42(1), 109-119.

2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 9545 words || 
Info
5. Pirkey, Melissa. "The Meaning of Exchange: Evaluating the Role of Cultural Context in Social Exchange" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-04-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726726_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: How does cultural context shape participation in and perceptions of social exchange? Though leading scholars of social exchange have called for more research directed towards these questions, the vast majority of research contributing to social exchange theory emphasizes other contextual elements such as network structure and size, power, or exchange history, and often produce conflicting results. I argue that the attention to the cultural context of social exchange would complement current research and has the potential to explain some of these divergent findings. To demonstrate the utility of cultural context for the study of social exchange I draw upon ethnographic data from a community supported agriculture organization. Findings indicate that the organizational culture creates a context in which public or open exchanges, that is, exchanges in which members have equal opportunity to participate- are viewed as appropriate, while exchanges that are private or exclude members are perceived as inappropriate. Additionally, findings demonstrate that in some contexts dyadic exchanges, which extant theory suggests support dyadic affective bonds, are capable of supporting group level bonds. As all relationships, be they professional, intimate, familial, or platonic, involve exchange behavior, this paper will be of interest to scholars in a number of subfields, including organizations, social psychology, culture, and economics.

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