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2014 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 4601 words || 
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1. Santamaría, Carmen. "Great Expectations: Expected Seconds to Assessments on Social Networking Sites" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco Union Square and Parc 55 Wyndham San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 15, 2014 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p726085_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores the system of preference in relation to the production of second parts after assessments in posts on social networking sites (henceforth SNSs). The different expectations regarding what might be preferred seconds in interaction on SNSs, as compared to face-to-face interaction, suggest the need to consider the factors that have an influence on the system of preference operating in this new genre. Relevant studies in the sequential organization of agreeing and disagreeing turns (Sacks 1973, Pomerantz 1975, 1984, Goodwin and Goodwin 1987, Mori 1999) show that their turn shapes differ due to their status as preferred and dispreferred activities respectively. In an attempt to discover the devices used on SNSs interaction in order to mark preference, I will analyze a corpus of two hundred messages from one particular site, i.e., Facebook (FB), containing interaction among friends, as distinct from other academic or professional types of interaction on this SNS. The methodology for processing the data borrows techniques from Corpus Linguistics (CL), and draws upon analytic resources from Conversation Analysis (CA) and Discourse Analysis (DA), as discussed in previous research (Santamaría García 2011). I will draw upon appraisal theory (Martin and White 2000, 2005) and politeness (Brown and Levinson 1987), in order to explore the connection between preference and the expression of attitude (affect, judgement and appreciation) together with face management and interpersonal rapport.
Key words: conversation analysis, preference, agreement, social networking sites, internet-mediated interaction

2010 - The Law and Society Association Words: 276 words || 
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2. Williams, Doug. "Investing in Law School: Expectations and Expected Earnings in the Contemporary Legal Market" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 27, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p407352_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Law schools attract some of the nation’s strongest college graduates, often in the expectation that big firm jobs will guarantee them an affluent future. But there is almost no data available to law students on the effect of a law degree on long-term earnings. A recent study by Herwig Schlunk suggests that for the majority of law students, modern legal salaries can’t begin to cover the time-value of law school debt and the opportunity costs of three years out of the labor market. We evaluate the same question, but in a different way, using three national datasets that contemporaneously tracked lawyers and college graduates: the High School and Beyond longitudinal study (1980-1992), the LSAC Bar Passage Study (1991), and The National Survey of College Graduates (1993). First, we create a sample of college graduates in the High School and Beyond study who are very similar, in terms of college major and academic performance, to law students (that is, to the sample of law students in the LSAC Bar Passage Study, who are coincidentally very similar in age to the High School and Beyond sample.) This serves as our “counter-factual” comparison group—college graduates who could have gone to law school but didn’t. Next, we use the last follow-up survey of High School and Beyond to examine how the earnings of this “counter-factual” group compare to the average college graduate. Since law students tend to have higher college GPAs than average, we expect higher-than-average earnings for the “counter-factual” group. Finally, we see how the earnings premium of the “counter-factual” group compares to the actual earnings premiums of lawyers, over college graduates, in the National Survey of College Graduates.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 500 words || 
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3. Wörle, Monika. and Paulus, Markus. "Sharing expectations in preschool children: Do preschoolers expect a friend to share more with them than a disliked peer?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960096_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Sharing expectations develop over the second year of life and become more differentiated with age. Paulus and Moore (2014) found that 5- but not 3-year-old children expected a protagonist to share more with a friend than with a disliked peer. Since this study tested sharing expectations in a third party paradigm, it remains unclear which expectations children have when they are themselves involved in the process of sharing, as it is often the case in everyday life. In the present study, we put children in the role of recipients and hypothesized that 4- and 5-year-old but not 3-year-old children would expect a higher amount of resources from their friend than from a disliked peer, due to the evolved concept of friendship at this age (Gifford-Smith & Brownell, 2003).
We tested 54 children from 3 to 5 years of age, assessing their sharing expectations in an Opt-out Paradigm – a paradigm derived from metacognitive research (Balcomb & Gerken, 2008). In the task, children were familiarized with a sharing game and told that their friend and a disliked peer (non-friend) had played the game recently. It entailed that friend and non-friend could share highly valued items with the child and put them in a box for it. The boxes have been left behind, containing the result of their sharing decisions. Consequently all children passed through two conditions: In one condition they received a closed box from their friend and in the other condition a box from their non-friend (person box). In each condition, another box was concurrently available, containing an item of medium value with certainty (opt-out box). The crucial outcome-variable was children’s choice of either the person box or the opt-out box. Assuming that children want to maximize their outcome by choosing the more profitable box, a choice of the person box would indicate children’s expectation that friend/non-friend has shared a highly valued item, whereas the choice of the opt-out box (containing an item of medium value) would indicate that they expect the friend/non-friend having shared nothing.
Results revealed a significant difference between conditions across age groups: Children chose the person box significantly more often when it came from their friend rather than from their non-friend, t(48) = 3.281, p < .01. Looking at the age-groups separately we found, that the difference between conditions was significant in 4- and 5-year-old but not in 3-year-old children. Moreover, a correlation between age and children’s choice of the box from their friend could be found: r = .30, p < .05.
These results suggest that children expected their friend to share more with them than a non-friend. Such differential expectations don’t seem to be present in 3-year-olds, which is in line with our hypothesis. The correlation with age indicates, that it is specifically children’s choice of the box from their friend which develops with age. These results are in line with previous research (Paulus & Moore, 2014) and can be explained by the concept of friendship, which develops between 3 and 5 years of age.

2015 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 6843 words || 
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4. Ball, Christopher., Huang, Tim Kuo-Ting., Cotten, Shelia., Rikard, RV. and Coleman, LaToya. "Invaluable Expectations: An Expectancy-Value Theory Analysis of Youths’ College Motivation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Chicago and Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Aug 20, 2015 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-10 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1008548_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is a continual need to understand the factors that influence minority students’ motivation and intentions to complete high school and attend college. Student interests formed in the early school years can have an impact on future course selections and persistence in school. These choices can have long-term repercussions on the future career options and the financial security of students. Therefore, we apply the long standing Expectancy-Value Theory (EVT) in order to examine the factors that may influence students’ motivations and intentions to complete high school and attend college. Specifically, we wish to investigate if EVT can help to explain the change in students’ academic intentions and motivations after a one-to-one computer based intervention. We hypothesize that students’ expectancies/self-efficacy and subjective task values will be positively associated with students’ intention and motivation to persist in academia. Data for this study was gathered from a sample of elementary school students within urban schools located in the Southern United States. Results indicate that the change of students’ expectancies for success and subjective task value saliency over the intervention played an important role in students’ academic intention and motivation to both finish high school and attend college. These findings demonstrate that EVT is useful in explaining general academic motivations in young children.

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