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2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 6977 words || 
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1. Li, Xigen. and Liu, Xudong. "Selective Exposure, Extended Exposure, and Side-Tracked Exposure: A Model of Media Exposure on the Internet and the Consequential Effects" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p485044_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This article analyzes the process of information access and media exposure on the Internet, and the context and situations where people perform selective exposure. It also discusses how need for cognitive closure and information search efficacy affect selective exposure, and how side-tracked and unintentional exposure will interact with selective exposure and produce potential persuasion effects. We further attempt to build a theoretical model of media exposure on the Internet and propose several theoretical propositions on media exposure in online settings. We conclude that people are often exposed to information far beyond what they initially seek out. The reinforcement effect of selective exposure in online settings will be modified or significantly weakened if multiple media exposures occur.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Medeiros, Mel. and Cummings, James. "Polarization and Technological Selective Exposure: A New Exploration of De Facto Selective Exposure" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, May 25, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1234559_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As information dissemination becomes more affordable, media consumers and organizations create strategies to attend to and process unmanageable amounts of content. Social media uses algorithms and social networks to replicate individual choice-based selective exposure, organizing content based on likelihood of preference for users. We distinguish between deliberate, individual selective exposure, and de facto selective exposure that shapes media environments for users to create an ecologically valid interventionalist experimental manipulation of filter bubbles on Twitter. We address this by exposing participants to different levels of attitude-challenging content on Twitter for one month to examine the effect long-term dissonance introduction on a primarily friendly medium has on political polarization. We expect to find decreased levels of political polarization among participants in the experimental conditions.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 44 pages || Words: 10763 words || 
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3. Valentino, Nicholas. "Partisanship and Exposure to Counterattitudinal Messages: The Selective Exposure Hypothesis Reconsidered" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p211720_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The network-dominated era placed significant constraints on mass political information seeking, thereby reducing the potential for selective exposure. There is some concern, however, that the Internet fosters selectivity by allowing people to more easily filter out information they might disagree with. We suspect, however, that the flexibility of this information environment will facilitate selectivity under some circumstances but undermine it in others. In line with the seminal work in selective exposure presented by Sears and Freedman (1967), we predict that the web will be used to search for balanced political information when people are motivated to do so. This motivation comes from the interaction of two factors: individual differences and situational emotional triggers. In two separate experiments, we find that anxiety boosts balanced information seeking among those who are highly invested in politics (strong partisans) or those who perceive the information available to them to be useful. Non-partisans and those who do not perceive the information to be useful respond to anxiety by withdrawing from information they disagree with. These findings reaffirm Sears and Freedman’s earlier insights, and demonstrate that the Internet is likely to have neither universally positive nor negative effects on political information seeking in contemporary society.

2010 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7994 words || 
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4. Wonneberger, Anke., Schoenbach, Klaus. and Van Meurs, Lex. "Facets of Exposure to TV-News: A Comparison of News-Exposure Measures Based on People-Meter Data" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, Jun 22, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p404169_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: News programs on TV are still assumed to be the “main source” about politics for many citizens. This study helps clarify the validity of different exposure measures – from the regularity of exposure via viewing durations to deliberate news selection and avoidance behavior. With people-meter data, representative for all adults in the Netherlands, the validity of nine different measures is assessed. Our results suggest that exposure to news is a three-dimensional construct consisting of the viewing amount, viewing proportion, and program selection. However, the simple number of days that a viewer watched news during one week discriminates best between different viewer groups. The proportion of news viewing and news avoidance yield additional insights and, especially, explain differences in news-viewing behavior between age groups.

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