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2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 20 pages || Words: 7097 words || 
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1. Talley, Heather. "Not a Pretty Girl: Facial Feminization and the Theory of Facial Sex Difference" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p309219_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Facial feminization surgery (FFS) is a set of cosmetic procedures marketed to male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals for the purposes of affecting a “feminine” appearing face. Unlike most scholarly work on medical interventions aimed at gender transitioning that focuses on genital reassignment surgery or hormone therapy, I describe processes through which “the male-to-female transsexual face” is taken apart, both literally and figuratively, resulting in a theory of facial sex difference. Surgery can never perfectly create “the female face” deciphered by theories of facial sex difference, both because the standard is an ideal type and because the results of surgery are never fully knowable or predictable prior to surgery. Thus I demonstrate that elaborating the differences between male and female faces undergirds the need for surgery by continually deploying a notion of “the female face” that positions the faces of male-to-female transsexuals as untenable. In this way, face work employed in the process of transitioning is not simply a mode of “doing gender” but rather a technology of repair. Throughout, I use facial feminization to call into question the distinction between reconstructive and cosmetic surgery in order to query how gendered body projects are aimed not simply at aesthetic optimization but rather unremarkability.

2009 - American Psychology - Law Society Words: 103 words || 
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2. Wilford, Miko., Wells, Gary., Knight, Melissa. and Quinlivan, Deah. "Inaccuracies in facial recogntion: Examining facial processing methods" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society, TBA, San Antonio, TX, Mar 04, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p296085_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study was conducted to examine whether faces are processed configurally or by features. Participants were asked to view a series of face and house images. Each trial included: an original picture, a blank mask, and the original picture unchanged or with one of five possible changes. After each trial, participants were asked if the picture changed and what image feature could have changed--even if none did. The pattern of results confirm a configural hypothesis with participants performing statistically better in detecting change in faces versus houses with no statistical improvement in detecting what changed in faces versus houses.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 10668 words || 
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3. Fortman, Jennifer. "The Role of Facial Expressions of Emotion in Attributions of Personality Characteristics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112790_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Facial expressions of emotion are an important source of information that may result in evaluation of the expresser. This phenomenon is particularly salient in impression formation when attributions of personal characteristics can, and do, influence the quality of communication. This study used attribution theory to examine the effects of facial expressions of emotion on the assessments of personality in an initial encounter. 121 men and women were exposed to expressions of six basic emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, surprise) portrayed by male and female models and then evaluated personal characteristics (credibility, attraction, desire for future interaction). Results supported the predictions such that negative expressions resulted in lesser attributions of credibility, attraction, and desire for future interaction while positive expressions resulted in greater attributions, although there were some subtle deviations from this general trend. Gender of the expresser was found to be influential, with the most striking finding being that men were consistently rated more positively for expressions of anger and surprise while women were rated more positively for expressions of sadness. In general, however, there were fewer distinctions between the genders than anticipated and some of those differences were contrary to expectations.

2007 - International Communication Association Pages: 5 pages || Words: 1726 words || 
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4. Kappas, Arvid. "Measuring Facial Responses to Media: Promises and Pitfalls" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, San Francisco, CA, May 23, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p171924_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Abstract: In recent years there has been an increased interest in using psychophysiological measures for the study of emotional reactions to different media such as print, radio, TV, or the Internet. Here facial electromyography (EMG) has proved to be particularly useful. While practical problems of recording EMG have been addressed in the last two decades with the availability of mature and cost-effective solutions, as well as common standards and procedures, it is time to readdress the issue of reliability of facial responses as indicators of affective states. I will review some critical evidence relating the moderating influence of social context on facial affective responses and present some original research on the potential underlying psychological processes. Specifically 2 competing theoretical approaches, Paul Ekman’s neurocultural theory of emotion, which includes the concept of display rules, and Alan Fridlund’s behavioral ecology theory will be contrasted. For many years social effects on facial activity have been addressed in applied contexts, such as the assessment of affective reactions to media, by recording participants in social isolation. This is thought to counter the effect of cultural display rules. However, Fridlund and others could demonstrate that effects of implicit sociality moderate facial activity even when people are physically alone. However, neither of the 2 dominating views on the relationship of emotions and expressive behavior can procedurally explain effects of implicit sociality. The present research is anchored in a social cognition framework and empirically investigates automatic links between underlying concepts and the effect of such links on overt behavior.

2006 - XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies Words: 319 words || 
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5. Morier, Marie-Pierre. and Cossette, Louise. "Patterns of motor and vocal behaviors and facial expressions of negative emotions in infancy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, Jun 19, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p93344_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: Based on a dynamic systems approach of emotional development, the main objective of this study was to determine whether infants’ facial expressions of negative emotions are associated with distinct patterns of motor and vocal behaviors across the first year of life and at the beginning of the second year. Forty-three infants were observed at 2 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 14 months of age in three situations: arm restraint, presentation of a gorilla head, and when infants were left alone after interacting with their mother. Infants’ facial expressions of emotions were coded using Max (Izard, 1983). Body movements and vocalizations produced while infants were expressing negative emotions were also coded. Chi-square analyses revealed that facial movements characterizing the emotions of anger and sadness as described in Max were associated with distinct patterns of body movements and vocalizations. When they showed facial movements of anger, infants were more likely than expected by chance to display a high level of motor activity and a high frequency of crying and whining. When they showed facial movements of sadness, they were more likely to have a low level of activity and to remain silent. These patterns were similar across situations but were found to vary with infants’ age. Specific body movements such as infants’ attempts to push away the experimenter who was holding their wrist in the arm restraint situation were generally not associated with distinct facial movements. However at 6 months, when they were showing facial movements of anger infants were more likely to push away the experimenter. Overall the patterns of relationship observed were more complex than predicted. They nevertheless suggest that the differentiation of negative emotions is not clearly established during the first year and early in the second year. These results will be further discussed in the light of dynamic systems theory and differential emotions theory.

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