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2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 192 words || 
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1. Henson, Abigail. "The Facts about FACT: An Evaluability Assessment of a Fatherhood Prison Program" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Nov 15, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1161008_index.html>
Publication Type: Roundtable Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In order for an organization to provide services that are effective and efficient, it is of the utmost importance to determine whether best practices are being enacted through an evaluability assessment. An evaluability assessment improves a program by articulating the program’s measurable actions, clearly defining the program’s stated goals and determining whether they are being met by the particular processes in place, and ultimately producing a logic model that bounds the program, roots the program in theory, and can be used in later evaluations and grant proposals. Fathers and Children Together, a fatherhood program created at SCI Graterford with the objectives of reconnecting incarcerated fathers with their children in order to prevent delinquency and later criminality of the children, was initially established in 2012; however the organization has never been evaluated. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct this study in order to ensure that goals are being met, provided services are grounded in theory, and outcomes are measurable. The process of the evaluability assessment, including thorough document analysis and semi-structured interviews will be discussed, as well as the preliminary findings, difficulties and challenges encountered during the study, and recommendations for program improvement.

2017 - AEJMC Pages: unavailable || Words: 7923 words || 
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2. Kim, Bumsoo. "In the Name of the Fact-Check: Sponsoring Organizations, Analysis Tools, Transparency/Objectivity of Fact-check" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AEJMC, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, Aug 09, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1282405_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This research empirically analyzed (a) categories of fact-checking institutions, (b) fact-checkers’ sponsorships, (c) analysis methods of fact-checkers, and (d) degree of pursuit of objectivity and transparency of fact-checking contents. The results showed that first of all the highest proportion of the types of sponsoring entities is commercials or advertising, followed by branches of a mainstream news media outlet. Secondly, about 70% of the sites provided official records/documents such as statistical data, prior news stories, and published papers, and the fact-checking sites mainly employed more detailed judging types that explained how they determined veracity. Thirdly, the degree of transparency (source clarity) for independent news outlets’ fact-checking
was higher than for stand-alone fact-checking sites as fact-checking sources of the independent news outlets were more clearly revealed. Finally, narratives of the fact-checking sites were more likely to lean toward objective than interpretative.

2014 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 18871 words || 
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3. Searles, Kathleen., Tawadrous, Fady. and Zimmerman, Joy. "Fact check this: The Effects of Media Fact-checking on Coverage, Attitudes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, The Hyatt Regency New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 09, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p682062_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Many studies find media significantly shape viewer attitudes (Nelson et al. 1997; Ansolabehere and Iyengar 1995; Dalton et al. 1998; Graber 1984) and in particular, misinformation in the media has potentially dramatic and long-term effects (Berinsky 2012; Ecker et al. 2010; Kuklinski et al. 2000; Nyhan and Reifler 2012; Nash 2012). One way media outlets attempt to combat such bias is by fact-checking. Yet, we know little about the act nor the effects of fact-checking. In this paper we examine how media outlets incorporate fact-checking in their electoral coverage and how that inclusion affects viewers’ attitudes towards the candidates and issues. To do so, we first conduct a large-scale content analysis of primetime television news transcripts from the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections. Second, we field a novel survey experiment to discern the effects of such coverage on viewers. Initial analyses suggest that media outlets are taking advantage of the increased popularity of fact-checking, but not actually incorporating independent fact-checking organizations’ verdicts in their coverage. Also, the experimental data suggest fact-checking affects individual retention of information. These preliminary results point towards significant effects for “fact-checking” on electoral television news coverage from 2008 to 2012, and on individual attitudes towards the media and politics.

2015 - ASEEES Convention Words: 137 words || 
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4. Whitehead, Claire. "The Facts of the Case: Fact, Truth and Narrative Strategies in Russian Crime Fiction of the 1860s and 1870s" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEEES Convention, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1021330_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: A preoccupation with the related issues of ‘fact’ and ‘truth’ lies at the very heart of all crime fiction. This paper will examine how this preoccupation finds expression in many of the narrative strategies encountered in early examples of Russian crime fiction from the 1860s and 1870s. With reference to the work of N.M. Sokolovskii and N.P. Timofeev, it will discuss the consequences upon reader experience of the simultaneous exploitation of the non-fictional genres of memoir and reportage and the underscoring of their crime stories’ ‘literariness’. It will then consider how the characteristics of narrative voice(s) are manipulated to problematize issues of ‘fact’ in the stories of S.A. Panov. Finally, a reading of works by A.A. Shkliarevskii will demonstrate how temporal devices can be harnessed both to establish and to undermine the ‘facts’ of a criminal case.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Words: 320 words || 
Info
5. Nalder, Kimberly. and Martin, Danielle. "The Facts as I See Them: Gender Bias and Fact Checking in Presidential Campaigns" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 30, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1248866_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Amidst rising popularity of fact checking organizations and live fact checking during presidential debates, we question how gender bias and politically motivated reasoning influences voters’ response to fact checking. To test how voters respond to fact checks, we use an experimental design administered with two samples: a representative sample of Californians conducted the week prior to the 2016 California primary election and a student sample during general election presidential debate watch events. Our experiment manipulates whether participants see information from Politifact, a non-partisan fact checking organization, showing Hillary Clinton as the most truthful 2016 presidential candidate, then asks all participants to rate Clinton, Bernie Sanders, and Donald Trump on a series of valence items, including truthfulness and competence. We also ask participants to rate the reliability of fact checking organizations and the extent of sexism in the United States. We find that both gender bias and motivated reasoning play a role in participants’ evaluations of fact checking organizations and how much fact checks influence candidate evaluations. Participants with traditional gender role opinions rate Clinton lowest on truthfulness and competence. This evidence of gender bias persists even for participants who see Politifact ratings showing Clinton as the most truthful presidential candidate, indicating that fact checks have little impact relative to gender stereotypes. Democrats and Clinton supporters are the most likely to be influenced by the Politifact ratings, likely because the fact check shows their candidate as the most truthful, while Republicans and Trump supporters are the least likely to rate Politifact as reliable or Clinton as trustworthy. Viewing Politifact ratings appears to reinforce preconceived evaluations of candidates – evidence of motivated reasoning. Overall, our research shows that exposure to fact checks does not necessarily prompt the desired response of evaluating political information and candidates. Rather, fact checks may simply reinforce gender and political biases, exemplifying the adage that you can lead a horse to water, but cannot make him drink.

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