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2013 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7529 words || 
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1. Beach, Sarah. and Kulcsar, Laszlo. "It Often Takes Two Incomes to Raise a Farm: On-farm and Off-farm Employment in Kansas" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton New York and Sheraton New York, New York, NY, Aug 09, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p649909_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the United States, working both on and off of the farm is becoming increasingly important. In 2007, in 67 percent of U.S. farming households either the operator or the spouse engaged in off-farm employment, and in 33 percent of these households both the operator and the spouse worked off-farm (Hoppe and Banker, 2010). Also in 2007, small family farms, those with sales of less than $250,000/year, accounted for 88 percent of U.S. farms, only 16 percent of the value of production, but they own 63 percent of the farmland controlled by farms (Hoppe and Banker, 2010). We use survey and interview data to address the following question: Are there certain socio-economic characteristics of farmers and farm operations related to engagement of a household member in off-farm employment? The results suggest that if a farm operation has sales of less than $100,000/year and it is smaller than 100 acres, or the farmer is younger, more educated or started farming more recently, the chances that they have a household member working off-farm are greater.

2008 - Rural Sociological Society Words: 151 words || 
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2. Inwood, Shoshanah., Sharp, Jeff. and Jackson-Smith, Douglas. "The Competing Effects of Instrumental and Substantive Rationality on Farm Adaptation among Entrepreneurial and Traditional Commodity Farm Enterprises" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, Radisson Hotel-Manchester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Jul 28, 2008 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p254720_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: In the U.S. farmers operate in a capitalist economic system that emphasizes consumer culture, where income standards influence household decision making. Entrepreneurial agriculture with an emphasis on direct marketing and value adding is promoted as a strategy for preserving agriculture at the rural-urban interface (RUI). As farming is as much a lifestyle as it is an occupation, farm households engage in a range of on- and off-farm diversification strategies to ensure survival as the family farm moderates the influences of capital penetration and consumer culture to achieve intergenerational succession goals. The decision to transition into entrepreneurial agriculture may be an outgrowth of the need to balance profit maximization with intrinsic goals and lifestyle values. An analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from nine case study counties is used to examine how family farms continue to evolve and negotiate the effect of capitalism and consumerism on farm business and household goals.

2008 - Rural Sociological Society Words: 150 words || 
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3. Getz, Christy., Brown, Sandy. and Strochlic, Ron. "Towards a Socially Equitable Food System: Understanding Farm Labor Conditions on California¬ís Organic Farms" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, Radisson Hotel-Manchester, Manchester, New Hampshire, Jul 28, 2008 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p254932_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: In this paper, we discuss findings from our recent (2007) wage and benefits phone survey of 300 organic growers in California. Specifically, we document survey findings in order to paint a picture of the current state of farm labor conditions in the organic sector. Our survey sample represents a broad cross sample of the organic sector, from farms ranging in size from .25 acre to more than 16,000 acres. In addition to reporting findings on wages and benefits, we explore correlations between farm labor conditions and farm-level benefits, including retention rates and accident and injury rates. We then explore the relevance of these findings to emerging efforts to incorporate a social component into sustainable agriculture certification systems. Finally, we discuss the ways in which we have tried to engage both growers and movement actors in the survey process and in outreach efforts around this issue.

2003 - American Sociological Association Words: 165 words || 
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4. Neufeld, Steven. "'Are You Experienced?' Farm Parents' Attitudes towards Farm Safety Experts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106821_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this paper discusses farm parents' attitudes towards the trustworthiness and usefulness of farm safety experts, and the relationship of these attitudes to different sources of safety information and to farm and demographic characteristics of farm parents. Qualitative and quantitative data both indicate that farm parents' attitudes regarding the trustworthiness and usefulness of experts are shaped by beliefs in the importance of farm experience as opposed to "book learning". Multiple regression analyses show that these attitudes do not correlate well with individual and farm characteristics, especially measures of farm background and involvement. Overall, the paper suggests that beliefs about the validity of "farm experience" versus "book knowledge" serve as an organizing principle which is used by some farmers to marginalize expert authority and maintain independence and autonomy. In addition to being socially constructed, beliefs about safety experts' farm background and experience appear to reflect psychological characteristics and cultural values that promote independence and autonomy among farmers.

2006 - Rural Sociological Society Words: 163 words || 
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5. Machum, Susan. "Searching for Bargains and Counting Pennies: Farm Women's Varied Cost Cutting Strategies on Family Farms" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, Seelbach Hilton Hotel, Louisville, Kentucky, Aug 10, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p122612_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: It has long been recognized farm women make both direct and indirect contributions to family farm enterprises: sometimes women work in production or act as flexible labour to reduce farm production costs; at other times they make household economies to reduce the financial drain on the farm enterprise; sometimes they make farm payments from their own off-farm income. Drawing on case study data collected from interviewing 36 women on potato and dairy farms in New Brunswick, Canada, this paper explores how differing marketing arrangements can lead to dramatically different kinds of contributions and cost cutting practices on family farms. Whether or not farm families opt for flexible labour arrangements, search for bargains or invest more family labour in the farm to cut production and household costs is strongly influenced by marketing and product payment arrangements. The paper outlines various responses and questions how good the push of global capitalism for open, free market economies is for family farms, farm women and rural communities.

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