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2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 8643 words || 
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1. Shen, Lijiang., Wang, Liyuan. and Seung, Suyeun. "Putting the Fear Back Again: Revisiting the Role of Fear in Fear Appeal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <VIDEO/X-FLV>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p979876_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The overwhelming majority of fear appeal research came from the between-individuals approach and yielded consistent evidence for a linear fear-persuasion relationship. A recent review suggested that the within-individuals approach might be more appropriate. Studies that measured fear at different time points have consistently revealed a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion, as originally proposed by the drive theory. An online experiment (N = 454) using tobacco warning labels was conducted to replicate the inverted-U shape curvilinear relationship between fear and persuasion, and to revisit the role of fear in fear appeal theories. Results showed that the inverted-U fear curve positively predicted persuasion effects of tobacco warning labels and reduced maladaptive responses; and that the linear trajectory of fear positively predicted maladaptive responses and failure of persuasion. Fear is reinstated into a central role in fear appeal.

2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 124 words || 
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2. Britto, Sarah. and Stoddart, Dahlia. "Protective Measures and Fear of Crime: Fear Reducing or Fear Reinforcing?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1276143_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Protective measures, which include both defensive and avoidance behaviors, are often seen as strategies to reduce both crime and fear of crime. The victimization/vulnerability model of fear of crime suggests that protective measures should reduce fear of crime, however, extant research on this topic is inconclusive. These mixed results may be an artifact of different operationalizations of the concept. Utilizing a 2016 survey of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) students, this study will explore the relationship between protective measures and fear of crime. Care will be taken to separate avoidance behaviors (measures taken to avoid the threat of crime) from defensive behaviors (measures taken that involve active defense) in these models. Practical and theoretical implications of the results will be discussed.

2011 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: 28 pages || Words: 6623 words || 
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3. Kang, Hannah. "The influence of fear appeal on persuasion effects for skin cancer public service announcements (PSAs) according to fear message framing and fear type" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Grand & Suites Hotel, St. Louis, MO, Aug 10, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p519637_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examined the impact of fear message framing and fear type in fear appeal on the persuasion effect of skin cancer public service announcement (PSA). To examine persuasion effects, this study used attitude toward advertising, attitude toward using tanning beds and sunbathing, and behavioral intention as the dependent variable. The experiment was designed by a 2 (message framing: positive message/negative message) X 2 (fear type: health risk/ social risk) factorial design between-subjects experimental design. Results indicated that the main effect of fear type was found on the attitude toward advertising. Moreover, there was significant interaction between fear message framing and fear type not only on the attitude toward using tanning beds or sunbathing, but also on behavioral intention. Implications and limitations of the findings were discussed.

2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 203 words || 
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4. McDonald, Aubri. "Nothing to Fear But Fear Itself? The Prime Time Crime & Fear of Crime Affair" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 03, 2009 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p379577_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: If knowledge gleaned from television that is not based in reality actuates in the real world, serious issues may result, especially when it concerns crime. The recent influx of news, drama, and reality-based programs about crime are believed to create an unreasonable social anxiety toward crime or ‘fear of crime’ despite the steady decline and current record low rates of violent crime. ‘Fear of crime’ is attributed to the disproportion between the frequency of violent crime victimization represented in the media versus the actual potential for being a victim of a violent crime. This study also considers that crime shows may also ease crime anxiety by featuring skilled investigators and sophisticated forensic science solving crime and capturing criminals, thus containing threats to our sense of safety and justice. ‘Fear of crime’ is conceptualized using Gerbner’s Cultivation theory, ‘Mean World Syndrome’; a media fueled belief that the world is more dangerous than it actually is. This analysis incorporates academic literature, crime trend data, and content analysis to explore the potential effects ‘prime time crime’ has on society’s supposed ‘fear of crime’ as well as impacts on criminal behavior and public trust in the integrity of the criminal justice system.

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