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2017 - American Society of Criminology Words: 124 words || 
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1. Britto, Sarah. and Stoddart, Dahlia. "Protective Measures and Fear of Crime: Fear Reducing or Fear Reinforcing?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1276143_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Protective measures, which include both defensive and avoidance behaviors, are often seen as strategies to reduce both crime and fear of crime. The victimization/vulnerability model of fear of crime suggests that protective measures should reduce fear of crime, however, extant research on this topic is inconclusive. These mixed results may be an artifact of different operationalizations of the concept. Utilizing a 2016 survey of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) students, this study will explore the relationship between protective measures and fear of crime. Care will be taken to separate avoidance behaviors (measures taken to avoid the threat of crime) from defensive behaviors (measures taken that involve active defense) in these models. Practical and theoretical implications of the results will be discussed.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 17 pages || Words: 4160 words || 
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2. Das, Enny., Van Koningsbruggen, Guido. and Fennis, Bob. "Taking the fear out of fear appeals: A self-affirmation account of the processes underlying fear-induced health persuasion." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112892_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: An experimental study tested the effect of fear appeals on the processing and acceptance of action recommendations. Based on assumptions from a motivated information processing perspective and self-integrity theory, it was postulated that that the effects of fear appeals on persuasion are mediated by a motivation to restore the integrity of the self, and not by perceptions of threat, or the emotion of fear, related to one’s health. A 2 (vulnerability: hi, lo) x 2 (self-affirmation: hi, lo) x 2 (argument quality: weak, strong) factorial design was employed to test predictions. Results were in accordance with hypotheses. It was found that increases in vulnerability induced an overly positive perception of action recommendations, and increased persuasion regardless of the quality of the arguments in the recommendation. However, intention and actions to engage in the recommended action dissipated when participants had been given the opportunity to affirm the self.

2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 203 words || 
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3. McDonald, Aubri. "Nothing to Fear But Fear Itself? The Prime Time Crime & Fear of Crime Affair" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 03, 2009 <Not Available>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p379577_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: If knowledge gleaned from television that is not based in reality actuates in the real world, serious issues may result, especially when it concerns crime. The recent influx of news, drama, and reality-based programs about crime are believed to create an unreasonable social anxiety toward crime or ‘fear of crime’ despite the steady decline and current record low rates of violent crime. ‘Fear of crime’ is attributed to the disproportion between the frequency of violent crime victimization represented in the media versus the actual potential for being a victim of a violent crime. This study also considers that crime shows may also ease crime anxiety by featuring skilled investigators and sophisticated forensic science solving crime and capturing criminals, thus containing threats to our sense of safety and justice. ‘Fear of crime’ is conceptualized using Gerbner’s Cultivation theory, ‘Mean World Syndrome’; a media fueled belief that the world is more dangerous than it actually is. This analysis incorporates academic literature, crime trend data, and content analysis to explore the potential effects ‘prime time crime’ has on society’s supposed ‘fear of crime’ as well as impacts on criminal behavior and public trust in the integrity of the criminal justice system.

2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 192 words || 
Info
4. Zaatut, Amarat. and Jacobsen, Shannon. "Fear among the Feared: Arab Americans’ Fear of Crime in an Ethnic Enclave Community" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Nov 16, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1146512_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While scholars have investigated the links between the minority threat perspective and the majority group’s fear of immigrants, little to no research exists on the inverse of this relationship. That is, what and who do immigrant groups – and specifically, first- and second-generation Arab Americans – fear at a time when they are perceived as one of the most threatening populations in the country? Research on fear of crime suggests that minorities have higher perceptions of risk and fear than other groups, consistent with their official victimization rates. The present study analyzes data from 66 in-depth interviews with first-generation Arab immigrant parents (N=32) and their second-generation teenage children (N=34), who reside in an ethnic enclave community in the northeastern United States. We focus on Arab Americans because they represent a religious and ethnic group that has faced intensifying fear and backlash in the U.S. following the September 11th terrorist attacks. Using today’s unique sociopolitical context as our backdrop, we examine participants’ immigration experiences and specifically how they have adjusted to the diverse American culture and their communities in the face of escalating fears about their very presence.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 8643 words || 
Info
5. Shen, Lijiang., Wang, Liyuan. and Seung, Suyeun. "Putting the Fear Back Again: Revisiting the Role of Fear in Fear Appeal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <VIDEO/X-FLV>. 2018-06-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p979876_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The overwhelming majority of fear appeal research came from the between-individuals approach and yielded consistent evidence for a linear fear-persuasion relationship. A recent review suggested that the within-individuals approach might be more appropriate. Studies that measured fear at different time points have consistently revealed a curvilinear association between fear and persuasion, as originally proposed by the drive theory. An online experiment (N = 454) using tobacco warning labels was conducted to replicate the inverted-U shape curvilinear relationship between fear and persuasion, and to revisit the role of fear in fear appeal theories. Results showed that the inverted-U fear curve positively predicted persuasion effects of tobacco warning labels and reduced maladaptive responses; and that the linear trajectory of fear positively predicted maladaptive responses and failure of persuasion. Fear is reinstated into a central role in fear appeal.

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