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2012 - RSA Annual Meeting Words: 149 words || 
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1. Triplette, Stacey. "Four Female Quijotes: Chivalry and the Female Reader in Don Quijote, Parts I and II" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the RSA Annual Meeting, Grand Hyatt, Washington, DC,, <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p525438_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This paper examines the fates of four transgressive female characters in Don Quijote who are highly conversant with chivalric motifs. Golden Age conduct books universally prohibit chivalric reading for women on account of its licentious content. However, in Don Quijote, part 1, Dorotea and Luscinda gain moral and material advantages from their performance of chivalric convention. From their reading practices, they learn techniques that enable them to bring about appropriate marriages. In Don Quijote, part 2, the Duchess and Altisidora employ chivalric tropes for a less noble purpose, namely, the humiliation of Don Quijote. Their malign intent and ultimate failure undermine the triumph of chivalric reading in part 1. The fate of chivalry and of women in the Quijote is closely entwined. If the end of the novel can be said to stage the death of chivalry, it can likewise be said to dramatize the death of female empowerment.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 231 words || 
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2. Alexander, Amy. and Bagenholm, Andreas. "Insights into the Female Political Empowerment/Lower Corruption Link: Female Politicians’ Engagement in Anti-Corruption Efforts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1079426_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is increasing research on gender and corruption over the last fifteen years. One strand of research is building a growing evidence base of a positive link between the percentage of women in government and lower levels of corruption (Dollar et al. 2001; Esarey and Chirillo 2013; Esarey and Schwindt-Bayer 2015; Goetz 2007; Sundström and Wängnerud 2014). This research has mainly focused on whether improvements in women’s presence matter and not the mechanisms behind this link and levels of corruption. From this perspective, one major “black box” in the research is more case-focused inquiry into the extent to which female politicians actually engage successfully in anti-corruption efforts. The aim of this paper is to fill this research gap through a more qualitative study of the extent to which female politicians engage in anti-corruption rhetoric or corruption allegations in election campaigns during the last 20 years. We also take a deeper look into the three successful cases in terms of anti-corruption reforms and with relatively high female representation, Taiwan, Estonia and Costa Rica, to find out to what extent female politicians are involved in drafting and adopting anti-corruption legislation. We focus on democracies only since members of government may be quite powerless in autocracies. This investigation makes an important contribution to the question of whether female politicians’ more active attention to corruption is a driver behind the female political empowerment/lower corruption link.

2018 - ACJS 55th Annual Meeting Words: 96 words || 
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3. Mikell, Toniqua. "Intersectionality and Female Sex Offenders: Influences of Race and Gender on Media Depictions of Female Sex Offenders" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ACJS 55th Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Feb 13, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1344865_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This research examines the often ignored reality of the sexual victimization of young men and boys. Specifically, this project makes attempts to understand covert and overt racial and gendered undertones used by the media to describe women accused of statutory rape. This research also compares depictions of women of Color to their white counterparts in the media. Using primary data collected from various media outlets, and applying theoretical frameworks such as hegemonic masculinity and chivalry, this paper seeks to understand how race/ethnic background plays a role in the media coverage of women accused of statutory rape?

2018 - Comparative and International Education Society Conference Words: 742 words || 
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4. Kato, Maki. and Kawano, Ginko. "The impact of female international students on the female ratio in STEM fields in universities in Japan and the United States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, Mar 25, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1353111_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The importance of diversity in STEM fields has increasingly gained worldwide attention. The underrepresentation of women has led some governments to start programs to increase the number of female scientists. The United States (U.S.) has been working to enhance diversity in the STEM fields since the 1960s, while Japan has implemented specific policies only in the last 10 years.
In the U.S., female degree holders in science comprise half the total number, engineering around a quarter, both of which increased by 3-5%-points during the past decade. However, the ratio of women in the computer science field has declined by 1.3% points during the same period. In Japan, the proportion of females is lesser: one third in science and less than 10% in engineering, in the year 2016.
Under these circumstances, female foreign students are expected to increase the female ratio in the STEM fields in both countries. In the U.S., the number of international students has increased in the STEM fields between 2010 and 2015, and the most popular fields are engineering and Computer Science, which showed a 116%-point increase according to [1]. In Japan, the ratio of female international graduate students in engineering is higher than that of female national graduate students [2]. Various measures to increase women in the STEM fields could result in the presence of more female foreign students.
However, there has not been an investigation of the effect of female international students in the STEM fields. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the relationship between the number of female international students with that of women overall in STEM fields at universities in Japan and the U. S. and thereby provide insights for other countries that are advancing similar measures.
The main method adopted is empirical analysis using macro-level data. We also compare the situation with that of male students. The estimation model has the male or female ratio as dependent variables and two independent variables: the proportion of international students by corresponding gender and logged GDP per capita. The reason to include GDP is the assumed change of majority in the field: the higher the economic level, the lower the male majority race in natural sciences. The data are obtained from the School Basic Survey in Japan and from the National Science Foundation data in the U.S. The targeted fields are both science and engineering from 1994 to 2014.
Panel estimation with the fixed effect of the field confirmed the level effect rather than the change effect. Targeting female students, the international student ratio is negative in Japan and positive in the U.S., while the GDP is positive for both countries. For male students, on the contrary, international student ratio is positive in Japan and negative in the U.S., while GDP is negative for both countries.
The results indicate the different effects of international students by both gender and countries. While female international students increase the female ratio in the U.S., they decrease the number in Japan, which is the opposite for male students. Therefore, increasing the number of international students is one way to increase the female ratio in STEM fields in the U.S., but not in Japan. Although the interpretation is not straightforward, one has to consider the relationship between national and international students by gender. In the U.S., female national students are replacing male nationals alongside female international students. In Japan, on the contrary, male international students, rather than female students, replace male national students. The result of the GDP is as expected; the higher the income level, the more diverse the body with responsibility in the natural sciences.
The constraint to generalization of the result is both data size and selection of variables. Increasing the number of countries and independent variables to explain the gender ratio is more suitable to investigate the theme. Variety in the science and engineering fields could also be a matter for discussion.
We need more discussion on the dual perspectives with regard to origin and destination countries of international students. To attract international students, especially female international students, STEM fields of developed countries need to be investigated in depth from a global perspective considering mutual benefit to both South and North countries.


Reference:
[1] Paul Schulmann. 2016. International Women: The Key to Gender Parity in U.S. Science & Engineering Departments? http://wenr.wes.org/2016/06/international-women-key-gender-parity-u-s-science-engineering-departments

[2] Yen-Wen Peng, Ginko Kawano, et.al, 2017. “Gender Segregation on Campuses: A Cross-Time Comparison of the Academic Pipeline in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan.” International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology. Vol.9, No.1, pp.3-24.

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