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2016 - The 62nd Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America Words: 138 words || 
1. Hirschfeld, Heather. ""Figurative": Figuring Hell in the Renaissance" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The 62nd Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, Park Plaza Hotel and Hynes Convention Center, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-11-17 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: George Steiner defines modernity as the moment when hell moved “from below the earth to its surface,” the result of the “mutation of hell into metaphor.” This paper looks at the Renaissance pre-history of this moment, when hell’s figurative and literal functions were simultaneously active and mutually reinforcing. I focus here on the alternately comic and terrifying uses of hell in a series of Menippean “descent narratives” from late sixteenth- and early-seventeenth century England (Pierce Penniless, News from Heaven and Hell, The Black Book, Knight’s Conjuring), which use hell as a literal site for literary production and publication. These works “think with” hell as both fact and figure, exploiting its immense conceptual purchase as both material yet otherworldly place and metaphoric yet existential state in order to establish the seemingly paradoxical ends of authorial celebrity and artistic sociability.

2016 - Association of Teacher Educators Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
2. Fernandez, Susan. and Bradley, Gary. "Figuring Out Figurative Language: Making Meaning of the Idiosyncrasies of Idioms" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators Annual Meeting, Chicago Hilton, Chicago, IL, Feb 11, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-17 <>
Publication Type: Single Paper Format
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: One of the most challenging interdisciplinary curriculum standards of comprehension and communication, the effective usage of figurative language’s idiomatic expressions, will be elucidated during this session of active instructional strategies.

2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 62 words || 
3. Murphy, Daniel. "Victimization: The Narrowing of the Gap Between the Dark Figure and Official Figure of Crime" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Nov 16, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-11-17 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research suggests a large gap in the reports of personal victimization when comparing survey research and police records. This study attempted to examine the "change in the gap" when legal definitions of crime were amended to be more inclusive of the dynamics behind criminal victimization. Specifically, this study examined rape as reported prior to and after significant changes in the legal definition.

2008 - International Communication Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 5795 words || 
4. Renstrom, Randall., Krumdick, Nathaniel. and Ottati, Victor. "Metaphorical Communication: The Effects of Figurative Language on Impression Formation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 22, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-17 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Previous research in communications and psychology confirms that literal trait (e.g., “hostile”) and stereotype (e.g., “African-American”) expectancies can influence a perceiver’s interpretation of ambiguous information about a target person. In some cases, however, perceivers may possess a metaphorical expectancy regarding a target person (e.g., “My boss is a baby”). The present research demonstrates that metaphorical language of this nature can produce analogous effects on the interpretation of ambiguous information about a person. Participants received a behavioral passage about a person named Donald that was ambiguous with regard to hostility. The passage also included a metaphor which described Donald. The metaphor either implied hostility (“Donald is a pit-bull”, “Donald is a Nazi”) or was neutral (“Donald is a bird”). The serial position of the metaphor was also manipulated, with the metaphor either coming at the beginning or at the end of the passage. Participants then rated Donald and his behaviors along a series of trait dimensions. Results showed that participants rated Donald’s behaviors to be significantly more hostile when the metaphor implied hostility and when it came before the ambiguous paragraph rather than after (B = -0.570, p = 0.04), suggesting that metaphors act as an expectancy or frame that guides the processing and interpretation of subsequently presented information.

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