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2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 134 words || 
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1. Adams, Amanda. and Leeper-Piquero, Nicole. "Downloading Media Files: A Theoretical Approach to Understanding Undergraduate Downloading of Media Files" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 13, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p200941_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Research into intellectual property theft, especially concerning copyright infringement, has quickly become a topic of interest. Many studies focus on the legal or economic side of copyright infringement, with much of this work investigating software piracy and the impact copyright infringement has on the copyright holders. The illegal copying and downloading of copyrighted materials has particularly become an area of interest as the media industry, such as record labels and production studios, began to fight against copyright infringement. Few studies investigate the phenomena of illegally downloading media files from a theoretical perspective. The purpose of the present research is to examine the extent of downloading media files, factors associated with the behavior, and the theoretical implications by examining how and why undergraduate students copy and download copyrighted material. Preliminary findings and implications are discussed.

2013 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 480 words || 
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2. Robertson, Craig. "Learning to File: Efficiency, Office Workers, and the Emergence of the Filing Cabinet" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Washington, Washington, DC, Nov 21, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p656816_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper uses the development of the vertical filing cabinet to begin a genealogy of the modern office. The office became “modern” when it was rethought as a site for the storage and retrieval of information – the center of a new understanding of the factory and corporation as a “system.” In the first three decades of the 20th century filing schools, textbooks, and office equipment catalogs generated a large body of knowledge created to come to terms with the protocols associated with representing the world through a new conception of work practices and gendered spaces. Ideas such as “efficiency”, “standardization”, and “rationalization” when applied to filing were skills that people had to learn. They also introduced people to a new conception of information: something that is perceived to be autonomous, modular, transferable, and therefore open to extraction and reorganization.

I look at the work of filing by emphasizing (1) filing was considered a skill in the sense that it required training, for office “systematizers” it was both a science and a profession (2) most people involved in filing were women. In examining these two things I explore Alan Liu’s claim that the office embodies the dominant protocols for the manners, skills, and relationships necessary to succeed in modern life.

Filing was taught in meticulous detail and as a career it was seen to offer women a rare opportunity to use skills in literacy and their “natural” disposition for order. Large office furniture companies ran their own private filing schools as well as producing teaching materials for private business schools and public high schools. These filing schools emerged in a critical moment in US education history when vocational education was introduced in an attempt to increase the number of teenagers enrolled in high schools, with the result that “education” was redefined as job training.

The broader context for this was the early 20th century emergence of a new market logic centered on efficiency and a rethinking of time in relationship to capital. Filing emerges less because of the fallibility of human memory but because the “future” is perceived as the key to organizing the economy and the state. Files were stored in anticipation of future use in such a way that saved time, both in terms of storage but also the ease with which a document could be found. More broadly in the world of scientific management information was seen as fundamental to productivity because it provided the basis for prediction e.g. the emergence of “cost accounting.” This is the need to know the future, to ensure efficiency by eliminating uncertainty. Factories, corporations, government departments need to know.

Therefore, it is the contention of this paper that the protocols associated with the filing cabinet make visible the norms that constituted the modern office as a space for the storage and retrieval of a distinctly modern conceptualization of information and a new office worker.

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7464 words || 
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3. John, Nicholas. "Why is File Sharing Called File Sharing?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 17, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p631603_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is currently a terminological battle between “piracy” and “filesharing.” The former metaphor has been analyzed by critical discourse analysts, who show how it serves the interests of the powerful. However, the term “filesharing” also has rhetorical force and a history, which this article uncovers. The notion of sharing has always been central to computing, from time sharing in the 1960s through to filesharing today. Analysis of the logics of sharing distinguishes between filesharing as access to files and filesharing as the reproduction and distribution of files. Placing both the practices and terminology of filesharing in historical context, the article shows “filesharing” to be an emic term, unlike the competing notion of “piracy.” An important part of the rhetorical force of “filesharing” is that “sharing” (our emotions and feelings) is a dominant form of communication in our contemporary therapeutic society and the way in which we sustain social relationships.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Words: 62 words || 
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4. Berg, Emily. "How to Secularize a Religious Argument: An Examination of Selected Amici Briefs Filed in In re Marriage Cases" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p377424_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Amici Curiae briefs are an underappreciated source for understanding legal argumentation. This presentation is based on a review of all 45 amici briefs filed for In re Marriage Cases and will focus in particular on how advocates attempted to “secularized” otherwise religious arguments opposed to gay marriage in order to be “reasonable” according to the norms and practices of constitutional argument.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 107 words || 
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5. Stacey, Michele. and Martin, Kimberly. "The Situational, Organizational, and Community Correlates of Victim Cooperation and Prosecutorial Discretion to File Charges" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p432050_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research on arrest and conviction decisions indicates that the certainty of punishment varies widely by jurisdiction. The central focus of this study is on an understudied area of legal decision making in the prosecutors decision to prosecute and victim cooperation with police. Using crimes known to police data, drawn from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), this study examines the situational, organizational, and contextual correlates of a prosecutor’s decision to prosecute and victim’s cooperation with police. In particular, the analysis examines those characteristics of the incident, police, prosecutors, and city which may lead to clearance in cases of reported violent crime incidents.

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