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2007 - NCA 93rd Annual Convention Pages: 24 pages || Words: 10066 words || 
1. Scherman, Elizabeth. "The Speech that Didn’t Fly: Polysemic Readings of Christopher Reeve’s Address to the 1996 Democratic National Convention" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 93rd Annual Convention, TBA, Chicago, IL, Nov 15, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper conducts a rhetorical analysis of text, context, and audience reception to explore the markedly different interpretations of actor Christopher Reeve’s address to the 1996 Democratic National Convention by the mainstream press and the disability press. The study is framed by the concept of polysemy, and in particular Leah Ceccarelli’s concept of strategic ambiguity and John Fiske’s concept of “gaps and fissures” that allow for different meanings to seep through texts.

2008 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 505 words || 
2. Hong, Christine. "Flying Below the Radar: the Downed Black POW and Antifascism in Ralph Ellison's World War II "Airman Novel"" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hyatt Regency, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Oct 16, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: From 1942 to 1945, writing on a grant from the Julius Rosenwald Fund, Ralph Ellison developed a narrative episode whose central dramatic tension arises from the internment of a black U.S. pilot in a Nazi prisoner-of-war camp—a World War II story that he not only later described, in mise-en-abîme fashion, as a "war within a war," but also, credited as a conceptual influence on his 1952 Invisible Man. Of this project that he ultimately would move away from but not entirely abandon, all that remains is a suggestive folder of draft fragments and reference materials housed at the Library of Congress under the misleadingly finished rubric, "Airman Novel." Featuring a brooding African American airman who, in a sacrificial gesture, bails out of a disabled plane over the European Theater, is captured, and is subsequently interned in a Nazi POW camp, the "Airman Novel," as a novel of ideas, engages powerfully with Ellison's Popular Front antifascist politics. In this paper, I look at this critically neglected, unpublished tale of World War II in order to examine how it is fundamentally preoccupied with what Ellison, wresting the term away from Gunnar Myrdal, deemed the "American dilemma." Albeit set outside the geographic parameters of the United States in territory marked as Axis, this war story dialectically engages the "American dilemma" on enemy terrain and in so doing suggests a discomfiting Axis and Allied identity.

Speaking squarely to paradoxes inherent in U.S. democracy, the very subject "placed outside the democratic master plan" is, in Ellison's war novel, forcibly grounded in a site located outside the territorial confines of the U.S.—a site that, however eccentric to the U.S. proper, functions as the latter's distorted yet telling mirror. Estranged into a fascist context, Ellison's black POW, a figure of historical dispossession positioned at the vanguard of the U.S. war machine, ironically emerges the face and singular redemptive possibility of American democracy. As a black Icarus who has tumbled onto critical geostrategic coordinates in the European theater, the downed flyer not only serves as "the image of the American" (Ellison), but also, from his grounded position, represents the tenuous political possibility of transracial fraternity and reconceived humanity. "[W]hen one looks around the globe for the truly human motivation behind this potentially peoples' war," Ellison asserted in 1942 in Negro Quarterly, a war-era journal he co-edited from with Angelo Herndon, "one finds it expressed most intensely among the darker peoples." A self-consciously racialized narrative of a wartime encounter between historic foes—Allied and Axis, black and white segregationist—Ellison's war novel is motivated by more than a modernist yearning to connect. Rather, through a sustained meditation on the question of the "more human," his narrative seeks to excavate an emergent, more supple "human" prospect of "real fraternal, i.e., democratic, values" and endeavors to locate this prospect in the underside of a racialized total war. Only in its ground-level potential as a "peoples' war," this story intimates, can World War II be understood as "a good fight."

2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 41 words || 
3. Williams, John. "Teaching the Research Perspective: Active Learning on the Fly" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Scholarship (or research) is a mindset as such as a set of skills. Teaching the research "mind" or perspective is difficult in a vacuum. Active learning theory suggests that appropriate context and relevance to the student will enhance development of th

2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Pages: 26 pages || Words: 6248 words || 
4. Fattore, Christina. "Come Fly With Me: Endogenous Protection of Aviation Companies and the Evolution of Rivalries in the World Trade Organization" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-22 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: When states file complaints regarding others’ trade behaviors in the WTO, they might be working towards a peaceful resolution or strategically promoting their own national interests against economic rivals. This paper contributes to the understanding how individual member states altruistically use international organizations to further international cooperation or intentionally manipulate these international organizations to gain domestic victories. I explore the evolution of trade rivalries using WTO dispute data. I derive a hypothesis from the endogenous protection literature that states that produce similar goods will file a significant number of WTO disputes in order to block access to their markets and third markets for competitive goods being produced by both states. I explore this hypothesis using two cases of rivalry in the aviation sector: the US vs. EU as well as Canada vs. Brazil. These two dyads very clearly engage in rivalry language behavior, which is evidence through the press and WTO documents. The identification of the "rivalry" is important in the military rivalries literature. Therefore, we are able to apply the “rivalry” label to dyads engaged in non-militarized conflict through their identification of the other in that role.

2010 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 493 words || 
5. Colbert, Soyica. "Un-Chaining the Body from the Place: Flying Africans in Spaceships" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Grand Hyatt, San Antonio, TX, <Not Available>. 2019-08-22 <>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: Soyica Colbert
Dartmouth College

In songs, stories, and literary representations, images of psychic, emotional, and physical flights permeate African American expressive culture. From narrations of the Flying Africans, by informants born in the late 19th century, to Kanye West’s hip hop track “Spaceship” flying represents one of the quintessential thrusts of African American aesthetics—the pursuit of freedom. The Flying Africans began as a tale circulated among enslaved black people in the Americas that depicted Africans who, tired of the oppressive conditions of chattel slavery, utilized metaphysical powers and flew back to Africa. Some theorists argue the myth communicates enslaved African’s mass suicide. Through death, the Africans metaphorically flew from a state of oppression to freedom. Within this metaphysical context, the imagery of the Flying Africans demonstrates an ambiguity towards death. In the 20th century, Song of Solomon marks that ambivalence as it shifts the terms of the pursuit from physical and social death to a psychic one as well. Similar to Song of Solomon, funk band Parliament’s album, Mothership Connection (1976), offers strategies to combat the psychic and social deaths experienced by black subjects in America. Utilizing technological innovation, Parliament recoups the imagery of the slaveship and transforms it into a spaceship that brings mother Africa to black Americans. The migration home, in this case, does not require black people to retrace the middle passage. Building on the imagery of Africans flying in spaceships, Grammy Award winning, hip hop artist Kanye West posits acceptance of psychic death induced by racial recognition as a prerequisite to flight through the juxtaposition of "I'll Fly Away" and "Spaceship" on his debut album. On West’s album, hearing "I'll Fly Away," a familiar refrain in African American sacred and secular expressive culture, reminds the listener that oral performance has the potential to enact flights with a cost.
While most theorists consider the visual imagery of the Flying Africans and the way flight acts as a signifier of freedom in general, I am also interested in the way each of the depictions of the Flying Africans I consider (the folktales, Morrison’s novel, and musical interpretations) utilize sound to signify on the embodied movement, the physical display. A display, that importantly, serves as a metaphor for death. Does sound emerge as a register that may momentarily free blackness from the body? If so, what types of deaths occur as a result? Each performance of Flying Africans negotiates death, albeit different types, as a conduit to freedom. The nature of the death (physical, social, psychic or some combination there in) correlates to the geographical movement imagined in each example. In this talk, I will argue that flight communicates an ongoing life and death battle in black culture that changes form from the Black Arts Movement of the mid-1960s and 1970s to the post-soul era. Although the implications of flight shift over time and across geographic locations, the negotiations with the freedom drive and the death drive persist in depictions of Flying Africans.

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