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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 43 pages || Words: 14649 words || 
1. Meyer, Christoph. "Do Europeans Think Alike About Legitimate Goals for the Use of Force? Lessons from a Comparative Study of Collective Norms Concerning the Use of Force" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The proposed paper presents the findings of a comparative research project on changing collective norms regarding security and defence policy in Britain, France, Germany and Poland. Are lessons learnt from history nationally distinct or do we find evidence of a common discourse revolving around the European experience of the wars of the first half of the 20th Century? The paper considers evidence from a media content analysis surrounding the interventions in Bosnia, Kosovo and Iraq, quantitative empirical evidence from questionnaire responses from elite actors and public opinion polls to measure differences between as well as within countries. One key finding is that there has been a convergence across Europe towards accepting that military instruments are sometimes necessary to protect foreign civilians from organised violence. On the other hand, the paper finds substantial differences in national attitudes rooted in collective identities regarding the use of force to promote values, material or political interests, or pre-empt threats. The paper argues that national strategic cultures thus limit the European Union to the role of a cautious humanitarian power (as epitomised in previous ESDP missions) unless it develops more flexible forms of intergovernmental cooperation on security and defence matters. A European Union that attempts to do more and live up to some of the aspirations set out in official documents will risk failure.

2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 9 words || 
2. Fridell, Lorie. "Deadly Force Policy and Practice: The Forces of Change" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Roundtable Paper
Abstract: Deadly Force Policy and Practice: The Forces of Change

2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 129 words || 
3. Avdija, Avdi. "Police Use of Force: An Analysis of Factors that Affect Police Officer’s Decision to Use Force on Suspects" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2013 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the multivariate relationship between factors that affect police officer’s decision to use force on suspects. Specifically, this study attempts to determine the amount of variation that can be explained in officer’s decision to use force on suspects by taking into account factors related to the suspect (e.g., age, gender, weight, height, suspect’s behavior, level of resistance used by the suspect, etc.), factors related to the officer (e.g., age, gender, height, weight, duty position, working with partner vs. one officer, length of service as a police officer, and officer’s perceptions about the physical ability of the suspect), and environmental factors (e.g., physical location of the incident). The analyses are based on a total of 619 police-suspect incidents in Eugene and Springfield, Oregon.

2018 - ACJS 55th Annual Meeting Words: 96 words || 
4. Harms, Joshua. and Wade, Lee. "Police Use of Force and Factors that Influence the Severity of Force" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ACJS 55th Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Feb 13, 2018 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Paper Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Media exposure and high profile cases of police use of force have created a great deal of unrest and more critical views of the authority given to law enforcement. Data on all uses of police force in one Southeastern department were collected over a seven year period. Various factors are measured with regards to both the officers and suspects in an attempt to determine what influence these factors might have on the severity of the force used. Use of force severity is measured in injury to the suspect and/or officer. Results and policy implications are discussed.

2013 - ISPP 36th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 208 words || 
5. Berrebi, Claude. and Ostwald, Jordan. "Terrorism and the Labor Force: Evidence of an Effect on Female Labor Force Participation and the Gender Gap" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 36th Annual Scientific Meeting, Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy, IDC–Herzliya, Herzliya, Israel, Jul 04, 2013 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A number of studies have shown a correlational relationship between measures of terrorism and the standing of women in the workforce as measured by female labor force participation. Various studies have proposed theories to explain these associations. Some have concluded that women’s participation in the labor force could be the driver that moves terrorism; others have proposed theories where terrorism and conflict motivate the deviations in the labor force. No study has adequately explored causality and the direction of this association. Using a panel data set of 165 countries and terrorism data from 1980-2007, we find that terrorist attacks decrease female labor force participation and increase the gap between male and female labor force participation. By exploiting variation across countries and time, we are able to identify the effects of terrorism on female labor force participation and the labor gender gap. Furthermore, by using two novel instrumental variable approaches, we identify a causal link and address endogeneity concerns related to the possibility of transitional development and shifting gender relations inciting terrorism. We find that, on average, terrorist attacks decrease female labor force participation, ultimately widening the labor gender gap. The results are statistically significant and robust across a multitude of model specifications.

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