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2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Vandekeybus, Anneleen. and Van Gorp, Baldwin. "Frames and Counter-Frames Giving Meaning to Euthanasia: Framing the End-of-Life Debate in the Dutch Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, May 22, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1364282_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper analyzes the frames (‘cultural images’ or ‘perspectives’) that occur in the social debate on euthanasia in the Netherlands. The first goal is to gain insight into the frames applied by the Dutch news media in their reports on euthanasia since 2016. The second goal is to develop alternative ‘counter-frames’: they can widen the imaging, allowing a more balanced view on euthanasia. The (counter-)frames were reconstructed by means of an inductive frame analysis of the Dutch news media and validated through a number of interviews with key stakeholders in the social debate. The findings identify four problematizing frames that are prevailing in the discussion on euthanasia. Complementary to each frame a deproblematizing counter-frame was defined. The paper concludes with a discussion on the practical implications of the results. The findings can offer a variety of stakeholders guidance in their line of thoughts and acting on euthanasia.

2011 - ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 246 words || 
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2. Perlman, PhD, Diane. "Framing Iran, Framing Nukes... Framing Ourselves" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, Jul 09, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p511331_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The dominant, hegemonic frame is that “we must not let Iran get nuclear weapons.” The only way to stop the Iranian threat is through coercion – “crippling,” “biting” sanctions, isolation, pressures and threats.

A concrete view of “the enemy” increases tension and provokes a “self-fulfilling paranoia.” It fails to understand asymmetrical dynamics that drive parties to violence – including fear, moral outrage, humiliation, backing into a corner.

Punitive, coercive approaches often have the opposite effect, provoking defiance, increasing s hardliner popularity, hurting innocents. Sanctions often fail and lead to a war that most of us are trying to avoid. Galtung refers to the “naïve theory of sanctions.”

“First order change” controlling the symptom, makea it worse. "Second order change" - transforming our relationship with Iran , is more stable and enduring. A Grand Bargain or similar tension reducing, win-win approach is more compelling than coercion, carrots, sticks, "diplomacy," "negotiation" which are superficial, disguised to force them to do what we want without bombing.

We will consider how we frame Iran, frame nukes, frame for war, and unintentionally frame ourselves (US). I propose “The King Cyrus Project” as a symbol to attract psychic energy bound up in conflict., based on Persian King Cyrus – a hero in both Persian and Jewish history. It is an alternative to the Israel Project and punitive, coercive, provocative escalatory strategies. KCP will propose strategies that draw on past positive relationships and favor tension reduction and positive inducements more likely to prevent hostility

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8471 words || 
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3. Brueggemann, Michael. "Between Frame-Sending and Frame-Setting: A Conceptualization of how Journalists Contribute to News Frames" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 17, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/X-PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p641068_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While the framing concept has grown into a thriving approach to analyse media content and its effects, research has not paid enough attention to conceptualize and analyse the contribution of journalists to news frames. This paper conceptualizes the contribution of journalists to frame media content as journalistic framing practices. It situates these practices on a continuum between frame-setting and frame-sending, implying that journalists differ in the degree that they contribute to shape news frames. The paper proceeds to present a set of hypotheses that explain differences in journalistic framing practices. It proposes a method that measures those practices and elaborates on the normative implications of more or less active journalistic framing practices. The approach and method are illustrated drawing on an empirical investigation of journalistic framing on climate change.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8890 words || 
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4. van Drunen, Anouk. and Boomgaarden, Hajo. "Audience Frames: The Missing Link: How Audience Frames Differ From Media Frames Regarding Muslims" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p490660_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The key foci in framing literature are investigations of media frames and their potential effects on public opinion. In the model of framing effects it is proposed that media frames affect public opinion via audience frames. There is a lack of research investigating these audience frames. Therefore, this investigation primarily focuses at the measurement of audience frames, which are applied to the immigration and integration of Muslims. Audience frames are operationalized in three steps: first a flow of thoughts is elicited from respondents, second coding elements are abstracted, which finally are grouped based on homogeneity. This last step represents an aggregate level structure of individuals’ schemas: audience frames. This results in three audience frames: a problem frame, an Islam frame and an out-group frame. The results indicate that established media frames are not representative of audience frames, which shows that taking audience frames into account in future studies is important.

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