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2016 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 237 words || 
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1. Hopkins, Benjamin. "Frontier as Practice: Frontier Governmentality along South Asia’s Global Frontiers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1071228_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Frontiers are almost universally conceived of as discrete spaces which lay at the edges of political authority, economic practices and social relations. They mark the limits of one system and thus the transition to another. Some of these spaces are starkly delineated in the form of borders, other bleed into each other in an impenetrable jungle of terrain, administrative fudge or political indifference making borderlands. This paper argues that rather than thinking of frontiers as places, they need to be understood as practices. Frontiers are constituted, maintained and remade through a constellation of practices – administrative, normative, economic and political – routinely performed by the various inhabitants, stakeholders and powers populating such spaces. I call the discrete set of practices ‘frontier governmentality.’ South Asia’s northwest and northeast frontiers were the testing grounds for the development of the colonial state’s frontier governmentality, which was subsequently re-ingested and redeployed in similarly situated spaces around the British Empire, and more broadly the imperially shaped world of the nineteenth century. But frontier governmentality did not die with decolonization. Instead, it was taken up with aplomb by the post-colonial states inhabiting the formerly imperial sphere. This paper examines the emergence of British India’s frontier governmentality along its inland frontiers during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. It also considers the implications of this emergence both for South Asia, but also the larger colonial and post-colonial worlds of the past two centuries.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 6154 words || 
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2. Barnes, Barbara. "Eco-Challenge, The Endless Frontier: Forging Mobile ‘American’ National Identities through Frontier Discourse" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p105267_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: During the 1990s, Mark Burnett (executive producer of Survivor) produced an endurance sporting event and a television program called Eco-Challenge-The Expedition Race. It was held in locations ranging from Southern Utah to Malaysian Borneo, and aired annually on various cable networks (MTV, Discovery, USA). These productions exploited images of local landscapes, exoticized and emptied of their social histories, as they highlighted mobile bodies of participants and the human drama that emerged while competitors trekked, climbed, and kayaked as much as 450 miles in 5-10 non-stop days. In this paper, I take Eco-Challenge as an example of a late-twentieth century cultural fascination, in the United States, with outdoor adventure, risk, and physical challenge in “wild,” and distant locations. Using media analysis of frontier narratives, twentieth century American landscape paintings, and televised productions of Eco-Challenge, along with data from in-depth interviews, I argue that the visual and narrative conventions through which such “adventure sports” are represented in U.S. popular culture, draw on representational conventions of the American frontier, as it was produced in the late nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. My overarching objective is to establish a symbolic genealogy of frontier discourse, and show that it has been subtly referenced not only by Eco-Challenge, but in most late twentieth century representations of outdoor “adventure sport”: the emptied landscapes and images of bodily mobility that comprise late-twentieth century representations of outdoor adventure ultimately reinforce U.S. political cultures that naturalize and normalize privileged, healthy, and robust bodies able to travel free of structural humiliation.

2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Pages: 16 pages || Words: 4465 words || 
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3. Abdollahian, M.., Arbetman Rabinowitz, Marina. and Kang, Kyungkook. "Exploring Optimal Public Expenditure Frontier: Stochastic Social Production Frontier Approach" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p310476_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We seek a preliminary answer to some fundamental questions: how politically capable are governments and how fiscal allocation policies affect the prospects for economic development? By mapping the interaction between the level of political capacity and the allocation choices made by governments we propose to identify the political levers governments can use to achieve optimal growth. In this paper we posit that political decisions reflect population preferences without dismissing the impact of private vs. public allocations. We propose a Cobb-Douglass style, stochastic, social production frontier which governments maximize, which is a function of both public & private production functions, socioeconomic inefficiency and exogenous shocks. Using GDP per capita as the output measure of social production, our inputs consist of a composite measure of disaggregated social budgets of public sector expenditures weighted by the interactive effects of political capacity. By taking into account political capacity and level of government activity in the economy, we begin to explore what type of public sector expenditures are the most efficient in order to allow them to maximize policy goals given endowment, productive technology and extractive technology.

2018 - ASEH Annual Conference Words: 280 words || 
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4. Freitas, Frederico. "Nature State as a Frontier State: national parks and frontier development in Brazil, 1937-1980" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEH Annual Conference, Riverside Convention Center, Riverside, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-17 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1301340_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Historians of conservation in Brazil have traditionally portrayed the establishment of protected areas in the country as the result of the lobby of upper-middle class nature enthusiasts concentrated in the urban center of the eastern seaboard. They present the creation of the first Brazilian national parks in mountainous areas outside Rio de Janeiro as an indication that parks were gazetted in Brazil to attend the demand for natural spaces from an elite of urban conservationists. This narrative, however, overlooks the fact that in each burst of national park creation in Brazil, a minority of parks were established in the country’s development frontier. The Brazilian government created a park in its close southern frontier in the 1930s; four national parks in the country’s savannah hinterland in the early 1960s, which followed the construction of the new capital, Brasília; and five new national parks in the 1970s in Amazonia, protecting an area the size of Ireland. This paper is an attempt to understand the establishment of national parks as part of a parallel history of frontier development. It follows the different federal plans to promote frontier development through state territorial intervention, trying to identifying the role played by national park creation in these projects. It discusses the changes behind the idea of national park in Brazil, from the protection of exquisite geological formations in the 1930s to the conservation of wildlife habitat in the 1970s, and how this evolving idea was articulated with the federal activism towards frontier development. It shows how in Brazil, the nature state utilized the tools of territorial development—environmental surveys, land use management, agrarian reform, colonization projects, road-building—to promote the establishment of protected areas in the Brazilian frontier.

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