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2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 157 words || 
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1. Scott, Daniel. and Maxson, Cheryl. "Examining Gang Structures: Applying Maxson and Klein’s Gang Typology to Institutional Youth Gangs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p665906_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Prison gangs have been characterized by scholars and correctional officials as evidencing structures and organizational features that depict them as more organized and quite distinct from street gangs. Contrary to this depiction, recent analysis of gangs in youth institutions suggests that organizational characteristics of institutional gangs resemble street gangs. The current paper furthers this line of research by applying Maxson and Klein’s street gang typology to the structural aspects of institutional gangs. Lastly, we investigate whether the typology can be profitably expanded to other characteristics specific to institutional gangs. The data derive from a larger study on gangs and violence in California’s youth correctional facilities. We examine structural depictions and organizational characteristics of specific gangs in five facilities as described by more than 100 youth involved in gangs in these institutions. We conclude with a consideration of the implications of these institutional gang typologies for gang scholarship, as well as for gang intervention strategies for incarcerated youth.

2013 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 8166 words || 
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2. Porter, Marclyn., Hillis, Katie., Chilton, Ken. and Wilson, Mary Katherine. "Gang Affiliated vs. Non-Gang Affiliated Youth: Furthering the Examination of Strain Theory and Gangs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton New York and Sheraton New York, New York, NY, Aug 09, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p651323_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Gang membership and associated violence is not a new problem. Cities across the country struggle with youth violence and gang problems, problems which have become entrenched over multiple generations. In an effort to address a growing gang presence and the violence spawning from it, city officials in one mid-sized Southeastern city authorized the creation of a Comprehensive Gang Assessment Project based upon methodology developed by the United States Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).
Risk factors such as environmental stressors, blocked economic and educational opportunities, fear for one’s personal safety, and low social control are suggested by Agnew’s Strain theory to be associated with the greater likelihood of participation in delinquent and/or gang related activities. Data gathered in 13 public schools (grades 6-12) via 5,057 student surveys examine these factors from the level of the individual respondent’s personal experiences, perceptions, and attitudes. Data collected provide a current understanding of the nature, scope, and dynamics of this multi-faceted community problem from those most directly impacted by gangs and gang activity.
Statistically significant differences found between the gang and non-gang affiliated respondents, across multiple risk and protective factors, in all three environmental domains studied (family, neighborhood, and school) further support the examination of youth delinquent behaviors through the lens of Agnew’s Strain theory. Gaining a deeper understanding of these attitudinal and environmental differences which exist between gang and non-gang affiliated youth will inform further development of effective, sustainable gang protection, intervention, and reduction strategies.
Keywords: strain theory, youth, gangs, schools

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 120 words || 
Info
3. Gravel, Jason., Valasik, Matthew., Pyrooz, David. and Mitchell, Meghan. "The Small World of Gang Research: “Gangs” of Gang Scholars in a Co-Authorship Network" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 17, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1044972_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Collaboration and data sharing in academic circles is crucial to generating new ideas and engaging in comparative research. Using data from a systematic review of gang research, we construct a co-authorship network of scholars involved in research on gangs. The structure of the resulting social network is explored and we identify key players in the field of gang research. Specifically, we investigate how academic collaboration is organized around specific large-scale datasets, and how the public availability of some of these datasets influences the density of local structures within the network. Furthermore, we investigate the broader impact of the Eurogang project on fostering collaborations between scholars from different countries as evidenced by increases in brokerage among key participants in this project.

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 198 words || 
Info
4. Robertson, Annette. and McMillan, Lesley. ""My Gang’s Bigger Than Your Gang": Understanding Policing, Gangs and Community" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p576276_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Youth gangs have received increasing social scientific, media and political coverage in recent years, with increasing numbers of interventions seeking to limit or end young people’s involvement. However, perceptions and understandings of what gangs are, who is involved, and the most effective way to police such activity is still limited. What young people get from being a member of a gang, how the community experiences gangs, and their interrelationship with the police requires further exploration.
This paper presents data collected when evaluating the use of dispersal zone legislation in an area of Glasgow, Scotland, known for youth gang activity. The data comes from qualitative in-depth interviews with police officers, young people (some of whom are gang members), local community organisations, and a survey of the local community. The paper explores police attitude to gangs and posits that to some extent the police-gang relationship is one of working class males fighting for control of the streets. Further, it discusses the idea that gangs are both a form of ‘constrained community’ for its members, but in turn can also act in ways that constrain the community as a whole, for example through street presence and antisocial behaviour.

2013 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 177 words || 
Info
5. Ortiz, Jennifer. "When is a Gang Really a Gang?: Differences between Prison and Street Gangs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Nov 14, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-09-14 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p665158_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: One of the largest misconceptions in gang research is the assumption that the term prison gang and street gang are synonymous. Although in the minority, some researchers suggest that prison gangs are qualitatively and quantitatively different from other gangs (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Previous studies of prison gangs have assessed the issue through a criminological perspective, largely focusing on the involvement of the gang in prison violence and the underground prison economy (e.g., Skarberk, 2010; Gaes, et al., 2002). Perhaps most disturbing about the existing prison gang literature is the overreliance on official perspectives (i.e. correctional officers and wardens) to discuss prison gangs. The present research is a case-study of a former gang member who joined a street gang, experienced gang life at different levels of the correctional system (i.e. jail and prison), and severed ties with the gang while in prison. The findings suggest that prison gangs and street gangs are not synonymous entities. Specifically, the findings expose differences in levels of corruption or criminality, relationships with authority figures, membership requirements, and roles of individual members.

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