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2009 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: 28 pages || Words: 18422 words || 
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1. Dicle, Betul. and Dicle, Mehmet. "Military Spending and GDP growth: Is there a general causal relationship?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel Intercontinental, New Orleans, LA, Jan 07, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p294794_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The causal relationship between GDP growth and military spending is a long lasting debate. Earlier studies employing cross-sectional, pooled or fixed effects panel data, report mixed findings. More recent studies employing causality tests also find mixed results. We argue that structural changes in data (i.e. significant economic or military events) play an important role and should not be ignored. We also argue that treatment of stationarity around mean and around time trend needs special attention. Structural changes, if ignored, have the potential to render long-run tests through VECM biased. Mistreatment of trend stationarity may result in spurious results. With a sample of 65 countries, for the time period between 1975 and 2004, we analyze the relationship between military spending and GDP growth with special emphasis to structural change and stationarity around time trend. For the Granger causation through VAR, we test GDP, military spending, government size and openness for stationarity around mean and around time trend using augmented Dickey-Fuller (GLS) test. While trend stationarity is a common trait of the variables, we also find that there are structural changes in the variablesÂ’ time trends. Considering the bias towards rejecting stationarity in the presence of structural changes, we also employ Zivot-Andrews unit root test. We find causal relationship between military spending and GDP growth for 54 (of the 65) countries. Based on this evidence, we estimate panel VAR estimation for Granger causation for the entire sample and find bi-directional positive causal relationship.

2017 - ASEEES Convention Words: 21 words || 
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2. Kuboniwa, Masaaki. "Mission: Impossible (The Impact of the Russian Military Industry on GDP Growth)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEEES Convention, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1252416_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: This paper examines the impact of defense spending and the defense burden on Russia's overall economy, specifically growth of the GDP

2010 - 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Pages: unavailable || Words: 873 words || 
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3. gumus, sedat. "Relationship between GDP per capita and gender parity in primary education: Evidence from provinces of Turkey" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 54th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, Illinois, Feb 28, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p400023_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Globally, 115 million children, which is almost one in five of all primary school-age children in the world, are excluded from school. Due to the huge gender disparity especially in developing countries regarding to school participation, more than 60 million of the total out of school children are girls (UNESCO, 2005). Turkey is one of the developing countries which struggle with both low primary education enrollment and high gender disparity. Even though, there are many reasons for gender inequality in education such as social, cultural, and geographical barriers for girls, this study focuses on the relationship between economic growth and gender equality of primary school access because economical growth is strongly related to both general school enrollment and gender equality in many cases.

2014 - SSSA Annual Meeting Words: 166 words || 
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4. McInnis, Nicardo. "The information content of means of payment for forecasting real GDP in Jamaica" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SSSA Annual Meeting, Grand Hyatt, Riverwalk, San Antonio, Texas, Apr 16, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p714819_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examines the information content of means of payment (MOP), as a composite measure of spending, for predicting real gross domestic product (GDP) in Jamaica. It is motivated by the need to augment the existing forecasting models of GDP by utilizing the rich and timely information contained in monetary data. The approach utilized a univariate autoregressive model as a benchmark, and then compared its forecasting properties against a set of multivariate models incorporating MOP. The comparisons were done by employing both the in-sample and out-of-sample approach to evaluate forecasting performances up to 4 quarters ahead. The root mean squared forecasting error (RMSFE), mean absolute error (MAE), Theil U coefficient and Diebold-Mariano statistics are used to determine the relative forecast accuracy of the models. The study finds that all of the models developed are able to outperform the univariate autoregressive benchmark model. More importantly, it finds that MOP, contains useful information for forecasting real GDP in and out of sample.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 8974 words || 
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5. Salmond, Rob. "Size Matters for Growth: Government Size, Country Size, and GDP Growth" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p150903_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: Big governments lead to lower levels of short-term economic growth. But is the size of this negative effect the same in different nations? I argue that big government matters less for growth in small countries than it does in large ones, because large countries are more dependent on domestic sources of production and consumption for their economic growth than are small countries. I find support for this argument in a panel study of 23 industrialized nations. I also find support for a subsidiary hypothesis linking big government in the US and/or Japan with low levels of growth across the industrialized world, but especially among small open economies.

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