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2009 - The Law and Society Association Words: 254 words || 
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1. Ramakrishnan, Kavita. "Inconsistent Legal Treatment of Unwanted Sexual Advances: A Study of the Homosexual Advance Defense, Street Harassment, and Sexual Harassment in the Workplace" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p376710_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Scholars have asserted that the homosexual advance defense is a male defense. However, none have engaged in a comparative study of the legal treatment of unwanted sexual advances on women. My comment seeks to provide this analysis by conceptualizing the homosexual advance defense as a form of legal recognition of unwanted sexual advances on men. In this piece, I compare the legal response to unwanted advances via the homosexual advance defense with the legal response to the two most common types of unwanted sexual advances faced by women: street harassment and sexual harassment in the workplace. As I demonstrate in my piece, courts have treated the same types of unwanted sexual advances differently based on the gender and sexual orientation of those involved. Court determinations about the severity of harassment, the abnormality of the harassment, the reasonableness and sufficiency of the defendant’s response and other factors may differ based on one’s identity. Harassment faced by women thus receives lesser legal recognition.

I seek to provide a broader analysis of the homosexual advance defense that recognizes its existence within a larger legal context; this context includes antidiscrimination law and is one in which women have also sought remedies in response to unwanted sexual advances. By examining the legal treatment of women who bring suit in response to unwanted sexual advances, I provide a critique of the homosexual advance defense that places the defense within the larger context of a legal system that overlooks harms to women and queer men.

2008 - The Association for Women in Psychology Words: 376 words || 
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2. Buchanan, NiCole. and Harrell, Zaje. "Sexual Harassment & Addictive Behaviors: Assessing the roles of harassment-related depression and trauma" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Association for Women in Psychology, Hilton San Diego - Mission Valley, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p230845_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In women, patterns of substance use and disordered eating behaviors have been linked to sexual harassment (Harned & Fitzgerald, 2002, Rospenda, Richman, Wislar & Flaherty, 2000). Two proposed mechanisms explaining this relationship are the degree of trauma and depression experienced by the survivor. The purpose of study is to examine how sexual harassment is related to alcohol use, drug use, and patterns of disordered eating and to determine whether harassment-related trauma and depression mediates these relationships. Using two samples, undergraduate and working women, correlation analyses revealed that, sexual harassment was significantly related to alcohol and drug use, eating disturbances, depression and post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms.

Mediation analyses (Baron & Kenny, 1986) indicated that the relationship between sexual harassment and eating distrubance was fully mediated by PTS symptoms in the working sample. However, the relationships between SH and drug and alcohol use were not mediated by PTS symptoms in either sample. Therefore, the association between SH and eating disturbances appears to be related to an increased trauma response to the harassment, while harassment, regardless of the presence of PTS symptoms, was sufficient to increase drug and alcohol use.

A similar trend emerged for analyses of depression as a mediator. The relationship between eating disorders and harassment was fully mediated by depression across both samples. For drug and alcohol use, depression had an independent, rather than a mediating, effect. Thus, depression appears to explain the relationship between harassment and eating disturbances, while independently contributing to an increased risk of substance use.

There is relatively little known about how sexual harassment is associated with externalizing behaviors. These findings support our predictions that harassment-related trauma and depression can account for the externalizing symptoms associated with the experiences of sexual harassment.

References:

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.

Harned, M. S., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2002). Understanding a link between sexual harassment and eating disorder symptoms: A mediational analysis. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 70, 1170-1181.

Rospenda, K. M., Richman, J. A., Wislar, J. S. & Flaherty, J. A. (2000). Chronicity of sexual harassment and generalized work-place abuse: effects on drinking outcomes Addiction, 95, 1805-1820.

2006 - The Association For Women in Psychology Words: 49 words || 
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3. Patel, Neesha. "Yellow-Fever or Racialized Sexual Harassment?: The Intersection Between Racial and Sexual Harassment among Asian-American Women" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Association For Women in Psychology, Marriott at Eagle Crest Conference Resort, Ypsilanti/Ann Arbor, MI, Mar 30, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p93670_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Asian American women are often stereotyped as “exotic” and “passive.” This presentation aims to explore the manner in which such stereotypes link to the experiences of racialized sexual harassment for Asian American women. The personal, interpersonal and vocational impact of racialized sexual harassment will also be addressed.

2009 - American Psychology - Law Society Words: 97 words || 
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4. Carlucci, Marianna. and Winter, Ryan. "Same Sex Sexual Harassment: Perceptions of Female-Female Sexual Harassment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society, TBA, San Antonio, TX, Mar 05, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p295542_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Participants read a case vignette depicting female-female sexual harassment where the sexual orientation of the harasser (lesbian vs. straight) and type of sexual harassment (approach vs. reject vs. generalized) were counterbalanced across participants. Results show that sexual orientation of the harasser is the most important factor used to determine liability, with participants finding more liability for lesbian harassers than straight harassers. Participants also found the same conduct to be more severe, pervasive, unwelcome and threatening in the lesbian harasser condition. These findings illustrate biases mock jurors may hold when making legal decisions in female-female sexual harassment cases.

2011 - American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law Words: 109 words || 
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5. Pina, Afroditi. and Page, Thomas. "Sexual harassment proclivity in men: The influence of Social Dominance Orientation, Ambivalent Sexism and attitudes toward sexual harassment." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law, Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, FL, Mar 02, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p482646_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The present study examined whether tolerant attitudes toward sexual harassment (SH) and the personality type ‘Social Dominance Orientation’ (SDO) are associated with and predictive of male SH proclivity on the ‘Likelihood to Sexually Harass’ (LSH) Scale. We also examined whether hostile and benevolent sexism and tolerant attitudes mediated the relationship between SDO and LSH. Participants (N=141) completed an online questionnaire and those higher in LSH had significantly greater SDO, hostile and benevolent sexism, and more tolerant attitudes toward SH than men with very little or no proclivity to harass. The findings support theoretical propositions that SH is motivated by ambivalent sexism, power imbalances, and desire for male social dominance.

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