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2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Paasch-Colberg, Suenje., Strippel, Christian., Emmer, Martin. and Trebbe, Joachim. "Using Tools Against Hate? Moderation Strategies and Online Technologies to Prevent and Counter Hate Speech" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, May 22, 2018 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1367634_index.html>
Publication Type: Extended Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The rise of online comment sections was met with a certain enthusiasm: The technology enabling user-generated content was associated with a high potential for political participation and democratic deliberation. However, these interactive environments also allow for hateful comments and the distribution of illegal content, disturbing and potentially destroying the deliberation process. Hate speech is a widespread problem and it seems that some topics, such as immigration for example, particularly trigger hateful comments. The increase of refugees arriving in Europe, that climaxed in summer 2015, is also associated with an increase of online hate against refugees and migrants in general. Contributing to the research on online community management, we investigate the handling of online hate speech in particular. In guided interviews with community managers in Germany, we explore which moderation strategies are used to prevent and counter hate speech and in how far technological features shape these strategies.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 248 words || 
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2. Koenig, Thomas. and Rustad, Michael. "“Hate Torts” To Fight “Hate Crimes”: Punishing the Organizational Roots of Evil" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p177078_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper coins the term “hate torts” to illustrate the growing role of tort law in defending vulnerable Americans against violence and intimidation by hate groups and hateful individuals. Even when criminal “hate crime” statutes are clearly being violated, hate groups prosecution is unlikely to be a top law enforcement priority. Enforcement agencies frequently lack the resources and expertise necessary to investigate and punish organizations that spew hatred. In the absence of effective criminal sanctions, tort victims and their lawyers can play the role of “private attorneys general” by filing civil lawsuits that expose and financially punish organizations that incite the commission of hate crimes. “Hate torts” give juries the muscle to impose a financial death penalty against organizations that recklessly or intentionally enable racial, ethnic or gender oppression.
Throughout their long history, punitive damages awards have proven their worth as a flexible remedy for punishing torts and crimes. Today, creative private attorneys general are applying traditional intentional torts such as the intentional infliction of emotional distress, assault, battery, outrage and false imprisonment as causes of action in hate tort litigation. The new millennium will require innovative solutions to the growing problems of organized hate, international human rights violations, online oppression and negligent enablement of third party crimes. Tort remedies will need to expand, not contract, if this branch of the law is to perform its critical function of punishing and deterring the organizational roots of evil.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 4064 words || 
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3. Chandrashekar, Santhosh. "When Hate Speech Hurts: Speech Code as a Strategy to Check Hate Speech" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, Nov 11, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p368808_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study makes a case for introducing speech codes on campuses in a bid to curb the growing incidence of hate speech. Tracing the historical differences between First Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment proponents and outlining the major arguments that both sides put forth in defense of their respective positions, this study argues that a speech code that meets certain conditions is a fair compromise between speech code opponents and proponents

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 145 words || 
Info
4. Lantz, Brendan., Gladfelter, Andrew. and Ruback, R. Barry. "Hate Crime Processing: Understanding the Trajectory of Hate Crime through the Criminal Justice System" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1031072_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Official data on hate crime greatly underestimate the national prevalence of hate and bias crime. These data are limited by low levels of reporting by victims of hate crime and limited hate crime training for law enforcement officers. Moreover, many victims of hate crime are racial and ethnic minorities, groups that typically have low trust in the police. Using the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS), we examine the processing of hate crime through the criminal justice system across multiple steps: reporting to the police, police response, the signing of a complaint, and the filing of charges. First, hate crimes are compared to other non-bias motivated crimes in terms of dropout at various stages of processing. Second, within-hate crimes, we examine differences in processing across a variety of bias motivations and victim demographics.

2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 51 pages || Words: 18221 words || 
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5. McVeigh, Rory., Neblett, Carl. and Shafiq, Sarah. "Where is a hate crime not a hate crime? It Depends on the Multiorganizational Field" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-29 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p18201_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Social movement organizations and nonprofit organizations can affect local communities in numerous ways, some of which are intended and some of which are unintended. Assessing the impact of these organizations is complicated because the effect that an organization has on a community depends on other attributes of the community in which it is embedded. This article draws attention to the importance of multiorganizational fields in determining social movement consequences through an analysis of hate crime enforcement and reporting in U.S. Counties. Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), in combination with more traditional statistical techniques, identifies 14 configurations of variable attributes that almost always result in reported hate crimes. The analysis shows how measures of civil rights activism, political opportunities, grievances, and multiorganizational fields combine in local settings to produce hate crime reporting with near certainty. Results indicate that the resourcefulness, heterogeneity, and funding sources of the nonprofit sector play a key role in determining whether hate crimes are reported.

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